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Hawthorn Leaves & Flowers - 75 g - Herbal Collection

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Hawthorn Leaves  - 75 g - Herbal Collection

Crataegus laevigata



     May help with


    • coranodilatator - vasodilatator
    • Hypotensive
    • anti-arrhythmic - decrease heart rate - bradycardia
    • cardio protective
    • Memory enhancement
    • anti-hyperglycemic
    • antibacterial antifungal antiviral
    • anxiolytic - sleep inducer - anti stress - nervousness - anger management


    Source : http://www.wikiphyto.org/wiki/Aubepine


    Reference on http://www.wikiphyto.org


    Translation in English by Google Translate  (go to the page of the source linked | on Chrome cellphones go on the 3 dots on the top right and select translate in your preferred language | on laptop right click your mouse and select option translate when hoovering on the page


    plant name


    Hawthorn, Whitethorn , Maythorn , cenelier , hawthorn (English)


    International Latin denomination


    Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Crataegus laevigata (Poiret) DC (= Crataegus oxyacantha L.)


    botanical family




    Description and habitat


    • Bushy and thorny shrub, 3-4 m high, with lobed and shiny green leaves, white or slightly pink flowers, grouped in corymbs, fragrant. The fruit is a small red drupe called cenelle
    • Hawthorn is common in hedgerows and woodlands throughout Europe, western Asia and northern Africa. It is naturalized in North America.


    History and tradition


    • Short and sharp spines ( oxus  : sharp, akanta  : thorn)
    • It is in the wood of the hawthorn that one cut the logs of the tortured in the past


    Parts used


    • Flowering tops, fruits, buds


    Dosage forms available



    Usual dosages





    Main components of the plant



    Main components of buds or young shoots



    Main components of essential oil




    Plant properties


    • Activity at myocardial level: improves myocardial irrigation and coronary flow (improves myocardial tolerance to oxygen deficiency), coronarodilator by polyphenols ( proanthocyanidols , flavonoids and triterpene acids )
    • Inotropic and dromotropic positive, chronotropic and bathmotropic negative (inhibition of cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase)
    • Hypotensive [4] , [5] , [6] (action on cellular Ca++ concentration and inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase), decrease in resistance of peripheral vessels, inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme ( flavonoids , proanthocyanidins ) [7] , [8] , interesting hypotensive effect in diabetics [9]
    • Anti-arrhythmic: decrease in heart rate, improvement in systolic ejection, bradycardia
    • Increases oxygen utilization capacity and the heart's ability to use calcium, improves microcirculation, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, collagen stabilizer [10]
    • Cardioprotective, protection against the deleterious effects of ischemia-reperfusion in rats ( procyanidolic oligomers ), inhibition of lipid peroxidation, inhibition of LDL oxidation ( polyphenols , proanthocyanidins , procyanidin dimer B2, hyperoside ) [ 11] , free radical scavenging, elastase inhibition [12]
    • Hawthorn extract may reduce incidence of sudden cardiac death [13]
    • Memory Enhancement [14]
    • Anti-hyperglycemic [15]
    • Antibacterial, antifungal ( Candida albicans ), antiviral ( Herpes simplex ) activity of leaf and fruit extracts by flavonoids  : vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside , hyperoside and proanthocyanidins [16]
      • The methanolic fruit extract is antibacterial on Staphylococcus aureus but is inactive on Candida albicans . [17]
    • Spasmolytic of smooth muscles ( flavonoids )
    • Anxiolytic, sleep inducer [18] , [19] , [20] , [21]
    • Apigenin is a competitive ligand for central benzodiazepine receptors, procyanidolic oligomers are tranquilizers


    Bud properties


    • Cardiac tonic activity:
      • Mild bradycardic action, negative chronotropic effect
      • Positive inotropic and coronarodilator effect [22]
      • Anti-arrhythmic effect (delays the onset of aconitine and calcium chloride arrhythmias) [23]
    • Antihypertensive [24]


    Properties of essential oil




    Indications of the whole plant (phytotherapy)


    • Mild heart failure, stage I-II coronary insufficiency [25] , [26] , cardiovascular protection [27]
      • A randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter trial conducted according to good clinical practice guidelines demonstrates the efficacy and safety of a standardized extract of fresh berries of Crataegus oxyacantha L. and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (Crataegisan®) in patients with NYHA class II heart failure [28]
    • Cardiac erethism in adults, emotional tachycardias, moderate bradycardias of the senile heart
    • Moderate arterial hypertension linked to hypersympathicotonia
    • Hypercholesterolemia [29]
    • Neurotonic states, minor sleep disturbances
    • Overwork, nervousness, anxiety, irritability, hyperemotivity
    • Sympatholytic beta (hyperactive, impatient, stressed, angry patient)
    • Rapid pituitary-adrenal response
    • Interesting in cystic fibrosis ( flavonoids )


    Indications of the bud (gemmotherapy)



    Specific indications of essential oil (aromatherapy)


    Known or suspected mode of action


    • Polyphenols improve myocardial tolerance to oxygen deficiency
    • Proanthocyanidins are tranquilizers
    • Inhibition of cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase
    • Action on cellular Ca++ concentration and inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase
    • Apigenin ( flavonoid ) blocks a step in the estrogen manufacturing chain, and it is a competitive ligand for central benzodiazepine receptors
    • Beta-sympatholytic (action similar to that of a weak beta-blocker)


    Usual formulations





    Possible side effects and precautions for use


    • No known toxic effects
    • CYP 3A4 inducer [31]
    • Use during pregnancy and breastfeeding is not recommended, due to a lack of studies [32]
      • It is likely that the use of infusion of hawthorn flowers does not present a risk, and that it is better to avoid fruit extracts, because of the presence of astringent tannins


    Bibliographic references


    1. Aller↑ Kirakosyan A, Seymour E, Kaufman PB, Warber S, Bolling S, Chang SC. Antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extracts from leaves of Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) subjected to drought and cold stress. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jul 2;51(14):3973-6. PMID 12822932
    2. Aller↑ Ficarra P, Ficarra R, de Pasquale A, Monforte MT, Calabrò ML. High-performance liquid chromatography of flavonoids in Crataegus oxyacantha L. IV. Reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography in flower, leaf and bud extractives of Crataegus oxyacantha L. Farmaco. 1990 Feb;45(2):247-55. PMID 2133999
    3. Aller↑ Paoli F. Crataegus oxyacantha, "valerian of the heart". Biotherapy Notebooks, n° 85, pp. 55-58, 1985
    4. Aller↑ Chen ZY, Peng C, Jiao R, Wong YM, Yang N, Huang Y. Anti-hypertensive nutraceuticals and functional foods. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jun 10;57(11):4485-99. doi: 10.1021/jf900803r. PMID 19422223
    5. Aller↑ A.-S. Abdul-Ghani, R. Amin, MS Suleiman. Hypotensive Effect of Crataegus oxyacantha. International Journal of Crude Drug Research, 1987, Volume 25, Issue 4, Pages 216-220 https://doi.org/10.3109/13880208709055196
    6. Aller↑ Walker AF, Marakis G, Morris AP, Robinson PA. Promising hypotensive effect of hawthorn extract: a randomized double-blind pilot study of mild, essential hypertension. Phytother Res. 2002 Feb;16(1):48-54. PMID 11807965
    7. Aller↑ Lacaille-Dubois, Franck U, Wagner H. Search for potential angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors from plants. Phytomedicine. 2001 Jan;8(1):47-52. PMID 11292239
    8. Aller↑ Orhan IE. Phytochemical and pharmacological activity profile of Crataegus oxyacantha L. (hawthorn) - A cardiotonic herb. Curr Med Chem. 2016 Sep 18. PMID 27655074
    9. Aller↑ Walker AF, Marakis G, Simpson E, Hope JL, Robinson PA, Hassanein M, Simpson HC. Hypotensive effects of hawthorn for patients with diabetes taking prescription drugs: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Gen Pract. 2006 Jun;56(527):437-43. PMID 16762125 Full Text
    10. Aller↑ Verma SK, Jain V, Verma D, Khamesra R. Crataegus oxyacantha - A cardioprotective herb. Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology 1(1) 65-71 (2007) Full Text
    11. Aller↑ Quettier-Deleu C, Voiselle G, Fruchart JC, Duriez P, Teissier E, Bailleul F, Vasseur J, Trotin F. Hawthorn extracts inhibit LDL oxidation. Pharmacy. 2003 Aug;58(8):577-81. PMID 12967038
    12. Aller↑ Chatterjee SS, Koch E, Jaggy H, Krzeminski T. [In vitro and in vivo studies on the cardioprotective action of oligomeric procyanidins in a Crataegus extract of leaves and blooms]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1997 Jul;47(7):821-5. PMID 9324931
    13. Aller↑ Holubarsch CJ, Colucci WS, Meinertz T, Gaus W, Tendera M; Survival and Prognosis: Investigation of Crataegus Extract WS 1442 in CHF (SPICE) trial study group. The efficacy and safety of Crataegus extract WS 1442 in patients with heart failure: the SPICE trial. Eur J Heart Fail. 2008 Dec;10(12):1255-63. doi: 10.1016/j.ejheart.2008.10.004. PMID 19019730
    14. Aller↑ Sangeeta Paul, Swapnil Sharma, Sarvesh Kumar Paliwal, Sanjay Kasture. Role of Crataegus oxyacantha (Hawthorn) on scopolamine induced memory deficit and monoamine mediated behavior in rats. Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, December 2017, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 315–324
    15. Aller↑ Jouad H, Lemhadri A, Maghrani M, Burcelin R, Eddouks M. Hawthorn evokes a potent anti-hyperglycemic capacity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Herb Pharmacother. 2003;3(2):19-29. PMID 15277062
    16. Aller↑ Orhan, I., Özçelik, B., Kartal, M. et al. HPLC Quantification of Vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside and Hyperoside in Three Crataegus Species and Their Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activities. Chroma 66, 153–157 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1365/s10337-007-0283-x
    17. Aller↑ Bouzid W, Yahia M, Abdeddaim M, Aberkane MC and Ayachi A. (2011). Evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the extracts of common hawthorn. Lebanese Science Journal.12, 59-69. http://www.cnrs.edu.lb/info/LSJ2011/No1/bouzid.pdf
    18. Aller↑ Hanus, M., Lafon, J., & Mathieu, M. (2004). Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed combination containing two plant extracts (Crataegus oxyacantha and Eschscholtzia californica) and magnesium in mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders. Current medical research and opinion, 20(1), 63-71.
    19. Aller↑ Zanganenejad, Z., Ahmadynasab, M., & Setorki, M. (2018). Effect of Crataegus Monogyna Extract on Anxiety, Depression, and Pain in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats. Journal of Diabetes Nursing, 6(3), 539-549.
    20. Aller↑ Lakhan, SE, & Vieira, KF (2010). Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review. Nutrition Journal, 9(1), 1-14. PMID 20929532
    21. Aller↑ Sarris, J., Panossian, A., Schweitzer, I., Stough, C., & Scholey, A. (2011). Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence. European neuropsychopharmacology, 21(12), 841-860. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2011.04.002
    22. Aller↑ DOLISOS. Crataegus oxyacantha. File of a cardiotonic plant. Homeopathic Pharmacological Laboratories (LPH) DOLISOS Paris, 1985
    23. Aller↑ Tétau M, Dorfman P. Scientific research and gemmotherapy. Biotherapy Notebooks, n° 138, pp. 35-46, February - March 1996
    24. Aller↑ Viriot Anne-Claire. An update on gemmotherapy in 2012. Pharmacy thesis, Toulouse, 2015
    25. Aller↑ Pittler MH, Schmidt K, Ernst E. Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure: meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Med. 2003 Jun 1;114(8):665-74. PMID 12798455
    26. Aller↑ Pittler MH, Guo R, Ernst E. Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure. Cochrane Database System Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD005312. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005312.pub2. PMID 18254076
    27. Aller↑ Jalaly L, Sharifi G, Faramarzi M, et al. Comparison of the effects of Crataegus oxyacantha extract, aerobic exercise and their combination on the serum levels of ICAM-1 and E-Selectin in patients with stable angina pectoris. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015;23:54. doi:10.1186/s40199-015-0137-2. PMID 26687477
    28. Aller↑ FH Degenring, A. Suter, M. Weber, R. Saller. A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial of a standardized extract of fresh Crataegus berries (Crataegisan®) in the treatment of patients with congestive heart failure NYHA II. Phytomedicine, Volume 10, Issue 5, 2003, Pages 363-369, https://doi.org/10.1078/0944-7113-00312 . ( http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711304702342 )
    29. Aller↑ Littleton RM, Miller M, Hove JR. Whole Plant Based Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia with Crataegus laevigata in a Zebrafish Model. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:105 (23 July 2012) Abstract  Provisional PDF
    30. Aller↑ Henry Pol. Gemmotherapy, therapy with plant embryonic extracts. Author's edition. Brussels, 1982.
    31. Aller↑ Xu Y, Zhang Y, Zhou F, Zheng Y, Zhu X. Human pregnane X receptor-mediated transcriptional regulation of CYP3A4 by extracts of 7 traditional Chinese medicines. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2011 Jun;36(11):1524-7. PMID 22779192
    32. Aller↑ European Union herbal monograph on Crataegus spp., folium cum flore EMA/HMPC/159075/2014 ( https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/herbal-monograph/final-european-union-herbal-monograph -crataegus-spp-folium-cum-flora_en.pdf EMA]
    • Journal of Practical Herbal Medicine No. 8 - 1999
    • Wagner H. Phytomedicine research in Germany. About Health Perspective. 1999 October; 107(10): 779–781. PMID 10504142 [1]
    • Theeshan Bahorun, Esha Aumjaud, Hemlata Ramphul, Maheshwaree Rycha, Amitabye Luximon-Ramma, Francis Trotin, Okezie I. Aruoma. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant capacities of Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) callus extracts. Food / Nahrung, Volume 47, Issue 3, pages 191–198, 1 June 2003
    • Bahorun T, Trotin F, Pommery J, Vasseur J, Pinkas M. Antioxidant Activities of Crataegus monogyna Extracts. PlantaMed 1994; 60(4): 323-328. PMID 7938266
    • Ahumada C, Sáenz T, García D, De La Puerta R, Fernandez A, Martinez E. The effects of a triterpene fraction isolated from Crataegus monogyna Jacq. on different acute inflammation models in rats and mice. Leukocyte migration and phospholipase A2 inhibition. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1997 Mar;49(3):329-31. PMID 9231356
    • Emmanuel B. Thompson, George H. Aynilian, Paul Gora, Norman R. Farnsworth. Preliminary study of potential antiarrhythmic effects of Crataegus monogyna. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 63, Issue 12, pages 1936–1937, December 1974
    • Saenz MT, Ahumada MC, Garcia MD. Extracts from Viscum and Crataegus are cytotoxic against larynx cancer cells. Z Naturforsch C. 1997 Jan-Feb;52(1-2):42-4. PMID 9090065


    Store in a cool, dry place, away from light. Keep tightly closed, away from the reach of Children and pets.

    Do not exceed the daily dose.


    This product is not intended to prevent or cure any form of illness or disease.

    If you are pregnant or nursing ; If you have a medical condition or are in the course of medical treatment ; If you are programmed for theater/operation in the near future, please consult your healthcare practitioner before using this product.


    This product cannot replace a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle.


    This product has not been evaluated by the SAHPRA for its quality, safety or intended use.


    For More Information please check our General Safety Herbal products Page

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