Bilberry Blueberries Whole Dried - 100 g - Herbal Collection
Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) is a small, perennial shrub native to Europe and parts of Asia. It is also known as European blueberry, whortleberry, or huckleberry.
The fruits of the bilberry plant are small, dark blue berries that resemble blueberries.
Bilberries have been traditionally used in herbal medicine for centuries, and they are known for their various health benefits, properties, and uses.
- Antioxidant properties: Bilberries are rich in antioxidants, particularly anthocyanins. These compounds help protect cells from oxidative stress and free radical damage, which can contribute to aging and various health issues.
- Eye health: Bilberries have been traditionally used to support eye health. The anthocyanins found in bilberries may help improve night vision, protect against macular degeneration, and reduce the risk of cataracts.
- Anti-inflammatory properties: Bilberries contain anti-inflammatory compounds that may help reduce inflammation in the body, which can be beneficial for managing chronic conditions like arthritis, heart disease, and diabetes.
- Digestive health: Traditionally, bilberries have been used to treat digestive problems like diarrhea and dysentery. The tannins in bilberries can have an astringent effect, helping to reduce inflammation and control diarrhea.
- Cardiovascular health: Bilberries may support heart health by improving blood circulation, reducing inflammation, and preventing blood clots. The anthocyanins in bilberries have been shown to help lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of heart disease.
- Diabetes management: Bilberries may help improve blood sugar control in people with diabetes, as they can help increase insulin sensitivity and reduce blood sugar levels.
- Cancer prevention: Some research suggests that the antioxidants in bilberries may help protect against certain types of cancer, such as colon cancer, by inhibiting tumor growth and preventing the spread of cancer cells.
- Skin health: The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of bilberries can promote skin health by protecting against oxidative stress, reducing inflammation, and promoting collagen production.
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International Latin denomination
Description and habitat
- Common undershrub on siliceous soils, humus forests and drying peatlands, Europe and western Asia
- Stems erect, angular, 30 to 60 cm high
- Oval, flat, finely toothed leaves
History and tradition
- Bilberry is sometimes called blueberry in North America.
- While the bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus ) comes mostly from Europe, the blueberry is the fruit of various species native to northeastern North America, the main ones being Vaccinium myrtilloides and Vaccinium angustifolium . The state of Maine and the province of Quebec are the main producers.
- Fruit ++
Dosage forms available
Main components of the plant
- fruit :
- Catechic tannins (10%)
- Anthocyanosides (0.5% of fresh fruit) glycosides of delphinidol ( delphinidin ), malvidol ( malvidin ) and cyanidin ( cyanidin ), pelargonidin , peonidin , hirsutidine , petunidin
- Proanthocyanidols (dimers of catechol and epicatechol )
- Flavonoids ( hyperoside ), quercetol and kaempferol glycosides ( astragaloside )
- Phenol acids ( malic acid , citric acid , quinic acid ), chlorogenic acid , p-coumaric acid , ferulic acid , hydroxycinnamic acid
- Oligosaccharides (sugars, 3-7%) and pectins
- Trans-resveratrol 
- Leaves :
- Catechic tannins (1 - 7%) and catechols ( epicatechol , gallocatechol , epigallocatechol )
- Proanthocyanidols (dimers of catechol and epicatechol )
- Flavonoids : quercetol and kaempferol glycosides ( astragaloside )
- Mainly chlorogenic phenolic acids
- Quinolizidine alkaloids : myrtine and epimyrtine
- Traces of arbutoside and hydroquinone in the plant and its buds 
- High manganese and chromium content (9 ppm)
Main components of buds or young shoots
Main components of essential oil
- Not applicable
- fruit :
- Vaso-protective, the anthocyanosides of Vacinium myrtillus are more active than rutin in tests measuring capillary permeability and vascular resistance  , with a long duration of action  , anti-edematous ( tannins , anthocyanosides ), improves capillary resistance  , 
- Inhibition of platelet aggregation ( flavonoids , anthocyanosides ) 
- Stimulation of the PGI2 activity of the vascular walls, “vitamin P” properties, scavenger of free radicals, vasomotor activity ( anthocyanosides improve vasomotion and the redistribution of microvascular blood flow)  , preservation of the vascular endothelium, s' opposes damage due to the ischemia-reperfusion process ( anthocyanosides ) 
- Anti-hypertensive by inhibiting effect of the angiotensin converting enzyme (IEC), the total extract is active while the anthocyanidins alone ( cyanidin , delphinidin , malvidin ) are not 
- Anti-inflammatory activity, improves joint function, reduces clinical signs, bone resorption, tissue swelling and osteophyte formation 
- Quercetin inhibits LDL oxidation
- Improvement of night vision (regeneration of rhodopsin), retinal protector by antioxidant effect ( anthocyanosides and anthocyanidins : cyanidin , delphinidin , malvidin )  , but clinical studies are lacking 
- Memory Enhancement 
- Intestinal and urinary antibacterial: inhibition of adhesion of coli bacteria in the bladder and intestine (probably identical properties to those of Vaccinium vitis idæa and Vaccinium macrocarpon or Vaccinium oxycoccos ), antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli , anti-biofilm effect  , E. coli and Proteus mirabilis  , but much less clinical evidence than Vaccinium macrocarpon 
- Reduced pain in spastic colitis
- Protection of keratinocytes against UVA and UVB rays 
- Protection against radiotherapy, blueberries seem to allow both an in vitro radio-sensitizing effect on human cervical cancer cell lines, and a reduction in cell growth 
- Inhibition of angiogenesis ( anthocyanidins : delphinidin , cyanidin , malvidin )  , action on retinal neo-angiogenesis in retinopathies, potential activity in AMD, prevents diabetic retinopathy  , reduces neovascularization in glaucoma [22 ] , decreases oxidative stress in ocular pathologies induced by oxidative stress  ,  ,  , 
- Neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons 
- A regular and moderate intake of blueberries or anthocyanins is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and with helping to maintain weight, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, beneficial effects on the vascular function and regulation of glycemic balance, favorable action on the gastrointestinal microflora, with implications in degenerative conditions and in the aging process 
- Photoprotective against UV-B 
- Antioxidant properties  , prevents liver and kidney damage caused by oxidative stress  , 
- All berries of small fruits ( blueberry , cranberry , elderberry , raspberry , strawberry ) possess antioxidant properties by their anthocyanosides measured by ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) evaluation, antiangiogenic and antiatherosclerotic properties  , [34 ] , action on VEGF (Vascular endothelial growth factor) 
- Prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by limiting the production of autofluorescent pigments which accumulate in the epithelial cells of the retina  , prevention of cataracts 
- Cancer prevention ( anthocyanins )  , inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), preferentially VEGFR-2 and EGFR 
- Prevention of carcinomatous transformation of adenomatous colonic polyps ( anthocyanosides ) 
- Tropism for the liver (more than 50% of anthocyanosides are found in this organ after oral absorption) 
- Tannins bind to anthocyanosides to form copolymers that interact with taste receptors in the mouth  , 
- Leaf :
- Close to those of lingonberry on the urinary tree (antibacterial derivatives of arbutin ), hypoglycemic, astringent in diarrhea ( polyphenols , anthocyanins )
Properties of essential oil
Indications of the whole plant (phytotherapy)
- Colitis, functional colopathies, urinary tract infections
- Venous and capillary circulatory disorders
- Raynaud's syndrome 
- The leaves are antidiarrheal, like the dry berry (in the fresh berry, irritating effect of ballast and acids)
- Intestine-bladder relationship, it has thus been demonstrated that bacteria could have a route from the intestine to the bladder by a mechanism called "bacterial translocation", after diapedesis then migration by the lymphatic route
- Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome (diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure) due to the presence of anthocyanosides 
- Prevention of phlebitis, even in pregnant women 
- It can be used in the same indications as those of the cowberry or canche Vaccinium vitis idæa L., and especially the cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. and Vaccinium macrocarpon (large-fruited variety), Ericaceae too (300 ml per day of juice containing at least 30% pure Cranberry would be effective in inhibiting the adhesion of bacteria to the walls of the bladder.This property seems to be due to proanthocyanidins.These molecules attach themselves to the bacteria on specific sites called "pilis" which are used by the micro-organism to anchor itself to the bladder mucosa)
Indications of the bud (gemmotherapy)
Specific indications of essential oil (aromatherapy)
Known or suspected mode of action
- Action of polyphenols on capillary permeability and resistance of vessels, favorable on varicosities (which are, like externalized varicose veins, alterations of the vascular wall but finer and superficial, at the interface between arterial and venous network, often red or bluish)
Possible side effects and precautions for use
- Prolonged therapeutic use of the leaf is not recommended given the risks of chronic use:
- Cachexia, anemia, jaundice and tone disorders in animals (but with very high doses of 1.5 g/kg/day)
- Theoretical additive effect with antidiabetic drugs
- Potential interaction with antiplatelet agents 
- No contraindication of fruit during pregnancy according to the EMA European Medicines Agency European Union herbal monograph on Vaccinium myrtillus L., fructus siccus
- ↑ Aller à :1.0 and 1.1 Szajdek A, Borowska EJ. Bioactive compounds and health-promoting properties of berry fruits: a review. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2008 Dec;63(4):147-56. doi: 10.1007/s11130-008-0097-5. PMID 18931913
- Aller↑ Ieri F, Martini S, Innocenti M, Mulinacci N. Phenolic distribution in liquid preparations of Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium vitis idaea L. Phytochem Anal. 2013 Sep-Oct;24(5):467-75. doi: 10.1002/pca.2462. PMID 23868799
- Aller↑ Lietti A, Cristoni A, Picci M. Studies on Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides. I. Vasoprotective and antiinflammatory activity. Arzneimittelforschung. 1976;26(5):829-32. PMID 9100
- Aller↑ Lietti A, Forni G. Studies on Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides. II. Aspects of anthocyanins pharmacokinetics in the rat. Arzneimittelforschung. 1976;26(5):832-5. PMID 989354
- Aller↑ Thorne Research. Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Monograph. Alternative Medicine Review, 2001, Volume 6, Number 5, Page 500
- Aller↑ Sévin R, Cuendet J, F: Effects of a combination of blueberry anthocyanosides and β-carotene on the capillary resistance of diabetics. Ophthalmologica 1966;152:109-117. doi: 10.1159/000304960
- Aller↑ Morazzoni P, Magistretti MJ Activity of Myrtocyan, an anthocyanoside complex from Vaccinium myrtillus (VMA), on platelet aggregation and adhesiveness. Fitoterapia 61.1 (1990): 13-21.
- Aller↑ Colantuoni A, Bertuglia S, Magistretti MJ, Donato L. Effects of Vaccinium Myrtillus anthocyanosides on arterial vasomotion. Arzneimittelforschung. 1991 Sep;41(9):905-9. PMID 1796918
- Aller↑ Bertuglia S, Malandrino S, Colantuoni A. Effect of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides on ischaemia reperfusion injury in hamster cheek pouch microcirculation. Pharmacol Res. 1995 Mar-Apr;31(3-4):183-7. PMID 7630857
- Aller↑ Persson IA, Persson K, Andersson RG. Effect of Vaccinium myrtillus and its polyphenols on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in human endothelial cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jun 10;57(11):4626-9. doi: 10.1021/jf900128s. PMID 19441816
- Aller↑ Figueira ME, Oliveira M, Direito R, Rocha J, Alves P, Serra AT, Duarte C, Bronze R, Fernandes A, Brites D, Freitas M, Fernandes E, Sepodes B. Protective effects of a blueberry extract in acute inflammation and collagen-induced arthritis in the rat. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 Oct;83:1191-1202. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.08.040. PMID 27551767
- Aller↑ Matsunaga N, Imai S, Inokuchi Y, Shimazawa M, Yokota S, Araki Y, Hara H. Bilberry and its main constituents have neuroprotective effects against retinal neuronal damage in vitro and in vivo. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Jul;53(7):869-77. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200800394. PMID 19415665
- Aller↑ Canter PH, Ernst E. Anthocyanosides of Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) for night vision--a systematic review of placebo-controlled trials. Surv Ophthalmol. 2004 Jan-Feb;49(1):38-50. PMID 14711439
- Aller↑ Krikorian R, Shidler MD, Nash TA, Kalt W, Vinqvist-Tymchuk MR, Shukitt-Hale B, Joseph JA. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Apr 14;58(7):3996-4000. PMID 20047325 Full Text
- Aller↑ Silva S, Costa EM, Mendes M, Morais RM, Calhau C, Pintado MM. Antimicrobial, antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity of an ethanolic, anthocyanin-rich blueberry extract purified by solid phase extraction. J Appl Microbiol. 2016 Sep;121(3):693-703. doi: 10.1111/jam.13215. PMID 27349348
- Aller↑ M. Marhova, E. Kaynarova. Effect of Blueberry Extract on Pathogenic Strains Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Proceedings of the Balkan Scientific Conference of Biology in Plovdiv (Bulgaria) from 19th till 21st of May 2005 (Eds B. Gruev, M. Nikolova And A. Donev), 2005 (P. 21–27) full text
- Aller↑ Jepson RG, Craig JC. A systematic review of the evidence for cranberries and blueberries in UTI prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Jun;51(6):738-45. PMID 17492798
- Aller↑ Calò R, Marabini L. Protective effect of Vaccinium myrtillus extract against UVA- and UVB-induced damage in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT cells). J Photochem Photobiol B. 2014 Mar 5;132:27-35. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2014.01.013. PMID 24577051
- Aller↑ Davidson KT, Zhu Z, Bai Q, Xiao H, Wakefield MR, Fang Y. Blueberry as a Potential Radiosensitizer for Treating Cervical Cancer. Pathol Oncol Res. 2017 Sep 30. doi: 10.1007/s12253-017-0319-y. PMID 28963664
- Aller↑ Matsunaga N, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Yokota S, Hara H. Inhibitory actions of bilberry anthocyanidins on angiogenesis. Phytother Res. 2010 Jan;24 Suppl 1:S42-7. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2895. PMID 19496063 (Erratum in Phytother Res. 2010 Apr;24(4):632.)
- Aller↑ Kim J, Kim CS, Lee YM, Sohn E, Jo K, Kim JS. Vaccinium myrtillus extract prevents or delays the onset of diabetes--induced blood-retinal barrier breakdown. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2015 Mar;66(2):236-42. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2014.979319. PMID 25582181
- Aller↑ Matsunaga N, Chikaraishi Y, Shimazawa M, Yokota S, Hara H. Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Extracts Reduce Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo. Evid Based Complement Alternate Med. 2010 Mar;7(1):47-56. PMID 18955266 full text
- Aller↑ M. Dutot, L. Rambaux, J.-M. Warnet, P. Rat. Modulation of oxidative stress by blueberry rich in polyphenols on a model of human retina cells. French journal of ophthalmology, December 2008, Vol 31 - N° 10, P. 975-980 
- Aller↑ Ogawa K, Tsuruma K, Tanaka J, Kakino M, Kobayashi S, Shimazawa M, Hara H. The protective effects of bilberry and lingonberry extracts against UV light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage in vitro. J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Oct 30;61(43):10345-53. doi: 10.1021/jf402772h. PMID 24083563
- Aller↑ Yao N, Lan F, He RR, Kurihara H. Protective effects of bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract against endotoxin-induced uveitis in mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Apr 28;58(8):4731-6. doi: 10.1021/jf904572a. PMID 20222750
- Aller↑ Milbury PE, Graf B, Curran-Celentano JM, Blumberg JB. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) anthocyanins modulate heme oxygenase-1 and glutathione S-transferase-pi expression in ARPE-19 cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 May;48(5):2343-9. PMID 17460300
- Aller↑ Rahman MM, Ichiyanagi T, Komiyama T, Sato S, Konishi T. Effects of anthocyanins on psychological stress-induced oxidative stress and neurotransmitter status. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Aug 27;56(16):7545-50. doi: 10.1021/jf800930s. PMID 18662010
- Aller↑ Kalt W, Cassidy A, Howard LR, Krikorian R, Stull AJ, Tremblay F, Zamora-Ros R. Recent Research on the Health Benefits of Blueberries and Their Anthocyanins. Adv Nutr. 2020 Mar 1;11(2):224-236. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmz065. PMID 31329250
- Aller↑ Svobodová A, Zdarilová A, Vostálová J. Lonicera caerulea and Vaccinium myrtillus fruit polyphenols protect HaCaT keratinocytes against UVB-induced phototoxic stress and DNA damage. J Dermatol Sci. 2009 Dec;56(3):196-204. doi: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2009.08.004. PMID 19747801
- Aller↑ Chu W, Cheung SCM, Lau RAW, et al. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) In: Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, editors. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2011. Chapter 4. 
- Aller↑ Valentová, Katerina & Ulrichova, Jitka & Cvak, Ladislav & Simánek, Vilím. (2007). Cytoprotective effect of a bilberry extract against oxidative damage of rat hepatocytes. Food Chemistry. 101. 912-917. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.02.038.
- Aller↑ Bao L, Yao XS, Yau CC, Tsi D, Chia CS, Nagai H, Kurihara H. Protective effects of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract on restraint stress-induced liver damage in mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Sep 10;56(17):7803-7. doi: 10.1021/jf800728m. PMID 18690680
- Aller↑ Zafra-Stone S, Yasmin T, Bagchi M, Chatterjee A, Vinson JA, Bagchi D. Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Jun;51(6):675-83. PMID 17533652
- Aller↑ Bagchi D, Sen CK, Bagchi M, Atalay M. Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, and anti-carcinogenic properties of a novel anthocyanin-rich berry extract formula. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2004 Jan;69(1):75-80, PMID 14972022
- Aller↑ Roy S, Khanna S, Alessio HM, Vider J, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Sen CK. Anti-angiogenic property of edible berries. Free Radic Res. 2002 Sep;36(9):1023-31. PMID 12448828
- Aller↑ Sparrow JR, Vollmer-Snarr HR, Zhou J, Jang YP, Jockusch S, Itagaki Y, Nakanishi K. A2E-epoxides damage DNA in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Vitamin E and other antioxidants inhibit A2E-epoxide formation. J Biol Chem. 2003 May 16;278(20):18207-13. PMID 12646558
- Aller↑ Fursova AZ, Gesarevich OG, Gonchar AM, Trofimova NA, Kolosova NG. Dietary supplementation with bilberry extract prevents macular degeneration and cataracts in senesce-accelerated OXYS rats. Adv Gerontol. 2005;16:76-9. PMID 16075680
- Aller↑ Wang LS, Stoner GD. Anthocyanins and their role in cancer prevention. Cancer Lett. 2008 Oct 8;269(2):281-90. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2008.05.020. PMID 18571839
- Aller↑ Teller N, Thiele W, Marczylo TH, Gescher AJ, Boettler U, Sleeman J, Marko D. Suppression of the kinase activity of receptor tyrosine kinases by anthocyanin-rich mixtures extracted from bilberries and grapes. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Apr 22;57(8):3094-101. doi: 10.1021/jf803094a. PMID 19323506
- Aller↑ Cooke D, Schwarz M, Boocock D, Winterhalter P, Steward WP, Gescher AJ, Marczylo TH. Effect of cyanidin-3-glucoside and an anthocyanin mixture from bilberry on adenoma development in the ApcMin mouse model of intestinal carcinogenesis--relationship with tissue anthocyanin levels. Int J Cancer. 2006 Nov 1;119(9):2213-20. PMID 16823841
- Aller↑ Sakakibara H, Ogawa T, Koyanagi A, Kobayashi S, Goda T, Kumazawa S, Kobayashi H, Shimoi K. Distribution and excretion of bilberry anthocyanins in mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Sep 9;57(17):7681-6. doi: 10.1021/jf901341b. PMID 19663426 [erratum in J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Oct 28;57(20):9856.]
- ↑ Aller à :42.0 and 42.1 Maillefert Olivia. Vaccinium myrtillus L.: a medicinal plant with anthocyanosides. Pharmaceutical sciences. 2010.dumas-00593157
- Aller↑ Melzig MF, Funke I. Inhibitors of alpha-amylase from plants--a possibility to treat diabetes mellitus type II by phytotherapy? Vienna Med Wochenschr. 2007;157(13-14):320-4. PMID 17704980
- Aller↑ Helmstädter A, Schuster N. Vaccinium myrtillus as an antidiabetic medicinal plant--research through the ages. Pharmacy. 2010 May;65(5):315-21. PMID 20503920
- Aller↑ Cignarella A, Nastasi M, Cavalli E, Puglisi L. Novel lipid-lowering properties of Vaccinium myrtillus L. leaves, a traditional antidiabetic treatment, in several models of rat dyslipidaemia: a comparison with ciprofibrate. Thromb Res. 1996 Dec 1;84(5):311-22. PMID 8948058
- ↑ Aller à :46.0 and 46.1 Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Fitoterapia, 1996, LXVII: 3-29
- Aller↑ Naseri R, Farzaei F, Haratipour P, Nabavi SF, Habtemariam S, Farzaei MH, Khodarahmi R, Tewari D, Momtaz S. Anthocyanins in the Management of Metabolic Syndrome: A Pharmacological and Biopharmaceutical Review. Front Pharmacol. 2018 Dec 4;9:1310. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01310. eCollection 2018. PMID 30564116
- Wichtl Max, Anton Robert. Therapeutic plants: Tradition, officinal practice, science and therapy. Ed. Tec & Doc. Cachan. 1999. p. 377
- Ulbricht C, Basch E, Basch S, Bent S, Boon H, Burke D, Costa D, Falkson C, Giese N, Goble M, Hashmi S, Mukarjee S, Papaliodis G, Seamon E, Tanguay-Colucci S, Weissner W, Woods J. An evidence-based systematic review of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. J Diet Suppl. 2009;6(2):162-200. doi: 10.1080/19390210902861858. PMID 22435415
Store in a cool, dry place, away from light. Keep tightly closed, away from the reach of Children and pets.
Do not exceed the daily dose.
This product is not intended to prevent or cure any form of illness or disease.
If you are pregnant or nursing ; If you have a medical condition or are in the course of medical treatment ; If you are programmed for theater/operation in the near future, please consult your healthcare practitioner before using this product.
This product cannot replace a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle.
This product has not been evaluated by the SAHPRA for its quality, safety or intended use.