Mate Tea (Ilex paraguariensis - Yerba Mate) - Herbal Collection
Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a plant native to South America, particularly in countries like Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Brazil.
It has been traditionally consumed as a beverage called 'mate' made by steeping dried leaves in hot water.
Yerba mate has been used for centuries for its various health benefits, properties, and traditional uses.
- Energy and mental alertness: Yerba mate contains natural stimulants, including caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline, which are known to increase energy levels, improve concentration, and enhance mental alertness.
- Antioxidant properties: Yerba mate is rich in antioxidants, including polyphenols and xanthines, which help neutralize free radicals and prevent oxidative stress. This can potentially reduce the risk of various diseases, such as heart disease and cancer.
- Weight management: Yerba mate is believed to aid in weight loss by increasing metabolism, suppressing appetite, and promoting the breakdown of fat cells.
- Digestive health: Yerba mate has traditionally been used to improve digestion and relieve gastrointestinal issues, such as constipation, bloating, and indigestion. It is also believed to have a mild laxative effect.
- Immune system support: Yerba mate contains saponins, which are natural compounds with anti-inflammatory and immune-boosting properties.
- Heart health: Some studies have shown that yerba mate may help lower LDL ("bad") cholesterol levels and increase HDL ("good") cholesterol levels, potentially reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
- Bone health: Yerba mate consumption has been associated with higher bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, suggesting that it may help prevent osteoporosis.
Source : http://www.wikiphyto.org/wiki/Mate
Translation in English by Google Translate (go to the page of the source linked | on Chrome cellphones go on the 3 dots on the top right and select translate in your preferred language | on laptop right click your mouse and select option translate when hoovering on the page
Mate, Tea from Paraguay , Tea from the Jesuits , Yerba mate , Tea from Brazil . When the leaves are steeped in hot water, either fresh or dried, the drink may be called 'chimarrão'. Infused in cold water, it becomes "tererê". 
International Latin denomination
Ilex paraguariensis Saint-Hil.
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Class: Magnoliopsid
- Order: Celestrals
- Family: Aquifoliaceae
- Genre: Ilex
Description and habitat
- Shrubby woody species, erect or flared. From 3 to 8 m high in culture, it can reach 20 meters in height in the natural state
- Erect trunk, whitish or ash-grey smooth bark. Persistent and thick leaves, large (5 to 15 cm by 2 to 5 cm), oval with a serrated edge and small stipules, resembling an orange tree. They are dark green with a lighter underside, shiny and hairless. Flowers white to greenish-white, axillary, in cymes at the end of the branches.
- Fruits: spherical drupes with glutinous and fleshy pulp, red sometimes going to purplish-black. 5 to 7 mm in diameter, contain 1 to 4 seeds.
- Edge of streams and forests of South America, Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, 500 to 700 m altitude. Appreciates semi-shaded places, with clayey and sandy, rich and humid soil.
History and tradition
- The indigenous peoples of Brazil and Paraguay have been drinking mate since ancient times.
- The first uses were made by chewing the leaves without preparation, its infusion not being done until much later.
- Europeans only heard about it in the 16th century, through the travel accounts of a Spanish explorer who reported that the Guaraní Indians of Paraguay prepared an infusion of the leaves to promote good humor and banish fatigue. The drink was all the rage in Spain, which prompted the Jesuits on mission in Paraguay to establish its culture, hence its name Jesuit tea.
- It thrives in Brazilian farms called “yerbales”.
- It is also called “Green Gold of the Indios”.
- Argentina's national drink is mate or " yerba mate ", an infusion that Argentines drink at any time of the day. The word mate also means the calabash which serves as a container for the infusion. Mate is drunk using a large metal straw with a filter at the end called a bombilla.
- The name “mate” means “gourd” in Spanish, an allusion to the small hollowed-out calabash in which the drink is served with hot, non-boiling water in South America.
- Species today almost threatened in the wild, in particular because of deforestation.
Dosage forms available
- Leaf tincture
- leaf infusion
- 3 grams of drug
Main components of the plant
- Purine bases ( methylxanthines ): caffeine (0.3 to 2.4%), theobromine (0.1 to 0.5%), theophylline (traces), trigonelline )
- Tannins , catechins
- Caffeyl-quinic acid , formerly called “pseudo-tannins” (4 to 14%): chlorogenic acid , neochlorogenic acid , and derivatives of dicafeylquinic acid , caffeic acid , quinic acid , cafeoyl glucose , caffeoylquinic acid , feruloylquinic acid , dicafeoylquinic acid
- Flavonoids : rutin , quercetin , kaempferol
- Triterpene saponosides : matesaponosides , mateglycosides A, B, C
- Vitamins, essential oil
Main components of buds or young shoots
Main components of essential oil
- Caffeine is partially bound to caffeyl -quinic acids , which alters activity (increased diuresis)
- Tonic, stimulant of the central nervous system, potential in Parkinson's disease 
- Anticonvulsant, neuroprotective  , 
- Stimulant and anxiolytic 
- Prevention of neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's) by reducing glutathione and improving mitochondrial dysfunction 
- Analeptic, glycogenolytic and lipolytic effects, stimulates the heart muscle (positive inotropic and chronotropic effect of caffeine ), with delayed effect
- Promotes satiety  , by acting on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and leptins 
- Anti-obesity activity  , anti-pancreatic lipase activity 
- Inhibition of adipogenesis (preparation named YGD, mixture of yerba mate , guarana , damiana , and resveratrol ) 
- Reduces glucose uptake 
- Relaxes smooth muscles, especially those of the bronchi, and acts favorably on peripheral blood circulation (migraine headaches)
- Antioxidant effect  ,  ,  , 
- Anti-inflammatory  , synergistic effect with quercetin on COX-2 inhibition 
- Anti-atheromatous, limits the progression of atherosclerosis 
Properties of essential oil
Indications of the whole plant (phytotherapy)
- Mental and physical asthenia
- Weight gain, obesity 
- Prevention of neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's)
- Migraine headaches
Indications of the bud (gemmotherapy)
Specific indications of essential oil (aromatherapy)
Known or suspected mode of action
- French Pharmacopoeia list A (sheet)
Possible side effects and precautions for use
- Potentially serious side effects with the ephedrine / caffeine mixture or with the synephrine / caffeine combination
- Genotoxic and mutagenic potential (oropharynx and esophagus) 
- Aller↑ Miranda, Daniel DC, Demétrius P. Arçari, José Pedrazzoli, Patrícia de O. Carvalho, Suzete M. Cerutti, Deborah HM Bastos, and Marcelo L. Ribeiro. 2008. “Protective Effects of Mate Tea (Ilex Paraguariensis) on H2O2-Induced DNA Damage and DNA Repair in Mice.” Mutagenesis 23(4): 261-65. https://doi.org/10.1093/mutage/gen011 .
- Aller↑ Afrah Abdulkarim Ismail. Effect of Intake of Mate on the Parkinson's Disease. EC Neurology 11.1 (2019): 86-89.
- Aller↑ Branco Cdos S, Scola G, Rodrigues AD, Cesio V, Laprovitera M, Heinzen H, Dos Santos MT, Fank B, de Freitas SC, Coitinho AS, Salvador M. Anticonvulsant, neuroprotective and behavioral effects of organic and conventional yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in Wistar rats. Brain Res Bull. 2013 Mar;92:60-8. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2012.11.008. PMID 23270878
- Aller↑ Mandel S, Youdim MB. Catechin polyphenols: neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in neurodegenerative diseases. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004 Aug 1;37(3):304-17. PMID 15223064
- Aller↑ Santos EC, Bicca MA, Blum-Silva CH, Costa AP, Dos Santos AA, Schenkel EP, Farina M, Reginatto FH, de Lima TC. Anxiolytic-like, stimulating and neuroprotective effects of Ilex paraguariensis extracts in mice. Neuroscience. 2015 Apr 30;292:13-21. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.02.004. PMID 25681522
- Aller↑ Lima, María & Colpo, Ana & Maya-López, Marisol & Rosa, Hemerson & Túnez, Isaac & Galvan, Sonia & Santamaría, Abel & Folmer, Vanderlei. (2017). Protective effect of Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill.) against oxidative damage in vitro in rat brain synaptosomal/mitochondrial P2 fractions. Journal of Functional Foods. 34. 447-452. 10.1016/j.jff.2017.05.026.
- Aller↑ Alkhatib, A.; Atcheson, R. Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) Metabolic, Satiety, and Mood State Effects at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise. Nutrients 2017, 9, 882.
- Aller↑ Hussein GM, Matsuda H, Nakamura S, Hamao M, Akiyama T, Tamura K, Yoshikawa M. Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) promotes satiety and body weight lowering in mice: involvement of glucagon-like peptide-1. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(12):1849-55. PMID: 22130241
- Aller↑ Arçari DP, Bartchewsky W, dos Santos TW, Oliveira KA, Funck A, Pedrazzoli J, de Souza MF, Saad MJ, Bastos DH, Gambero A, Carvalho Pde O, Ribeiro ML. Antiobesity effects of yerba mate extract (Ilex paraguariensis) in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Obesity (SilverSpring). 2009 Dec;17(12):2127-33. PMID 19444227
- Aller↑ Sugimoto S, Nakamura S, Yamamoto S, Yamashita C, Oda Y, Matsuda H, Yoshikawa M. Brazilian natural medicines. III. structures of triterpene oligoglycosides and lipase inhibitors from mate, leaves of ilex paraguariensis. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2009 Mar;57(3):257-61. PMID 19252316
- Aller↑ Santos JC, Gotardo ÉMF, Brianti MT, Piraee M, Gambero A, Ribeiro ML. Effects of Yerba Mate, a Plant Extract Formulation (“YGD”) and Resveratrol in 3T3-L1 Adipogenesis. Molecules. 2014; 19(10):16909-16924. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016909
- Aller↑ Oliveira DM, Freitas HS, Souza MF, Arçari DP, Ribeiro ML, Carvalho PO, Bastos DH. Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) aqueous extract decreases intestinal SGLT1 gene expression but does not affect other biochemical parameters in alloxan-diabetic Wistar rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Nov 26;56(22):10527-32. PMID 18942839
- Aller↑ Gugliucci A. Antioxidant effects of Ilex paraguariensis: induction of decreased oxidability of human LDL in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Jul 16;224(2):338-44. PMID 8702392
- Aller↑ Schinella GR, Troiani G, Dávila V, de Buschiazzo PM, Tournier HA. Antioxidant effects of an aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Mar 16;269(2):357-60. PMID 10708556
- Aller↑ Chandra S, De Mejia Gonzalez E. Polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and quinone reductase activity of an aqueous extract of Ardisia compressa in comparison to mate (Ilex paraguariensis) and green (Camellia sinensis) teas. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jun 2;52(11):3583-9. PMID 15161234
- Aller↑ Bastos DH, Saldanha LA, Catharino RR, Sawaya AC, Cunha IB, Carvalho PO, Eberlin MN. Phenolic antioxidants identified by ESI-MS from Yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) and green tea (Camelia sinensis) extracts. Molecules. 2007 Mar 12;12(3):423-32. PMID 17851401
- Aller↑ Arçari DP, Bartchewsky W Jr, dos Santos TW, Oliveira KA, DeOliveira CC, Gotardo ÉM, Pedrazzoli J Jr, Gambero A, Ferraz LF, Carvalho Pde O, Ribeiro ML. Anti-inflammatory effects of yerba mate extract (Ilex paraguariensis) ameliorate insulin resistance in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011 Mar 30;335(2):110-5. PMID 21238540
- Aller↑ Sirima Puangpraphant, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia. Saponins in Yerba Mate Tea (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil) and Quercetin Synergistically Inhibit iNOS and COX-2 in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Macrophages through NFκB Pathways. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2009 57(19), pp 8873–8883
- Aller↑ Mosimann AL, Wilhelm-Filho D, da Silva EL. Aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Biofactors. 2006;26(1):59-70. PMID 16614483 full text
- Aller↑ Gambero A, Ribeiro ML. The positive effects of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) in obesity. Nutrients. 2015 Jan 22;7(2):730-50. doi: 10.3390/nu7020730. PMID 25621503
- Aller↑ Fonseca Carmem As, Otto Sandra S, Paumgartten Francisco Jr, Leitao Alvaro C. Nontoxic, mutagenic, and clastogenic activities of Mate-Chimarrão (Ilex paraguariensis). Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology, 2000, vol. 19, no.4, p. 333-346.
- Kellie P. Burris, Federico M. Harte, P. Michael Davidson, C. Neal Stewart, Jr., Svetlana Zivanovic. Composition and Bioactive Properties of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.): A Review. Chilean Journal Of Agricultural Research 72(2) April-June 2012 full text
- Bracesco N, Sanchez AG, Contreras V, Menini T, Gugliucci A. Recent advances on Ilex paraguariensis research: mini review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jul 14;136(3):378-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.06.032. PMID 20599603
Store in a cool, dry place, away from light. Keep tightly closed, away from the reach of Children and pets.
Do not exceed the daily dose.
This product is not intended to prevent or cure any form of illness or disease.
If you are pregnant or nursing ; If you have a medical condition or are in the course of medical treatment ; If you are programmed for theater/operation in the near future, please consult your healthcare practitioner before using this product.
This product cannot replace a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle.
This product has not been evaluated by the SAHPRA for its quality, safety or intended use.