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Panax Ginseng - 60 Capsules - Herbal Collection

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Description

Panax Ginseng Powder - 60 Capsules - Herbal Collection

 


    TRADITIONALLY USED FOR

    May helps with

     

    • Fight Tiredness and Increase Energy Levels.
    • Potent Antioxidant That May Reduce Inflammation.
    • May Benefit Brain Function.
    • Could Improve Erectile Dysfunction.
    • May Boost the Immune System.
    • Could help Lower Blood Sugar.

    INFORMATION

    Source : http://www.wikiphyto.org/wiki/Ginseng

     

    Reference on http://www.wikiphyto.org

     

    Translation in English by Google Translate  (go to the page of the source linked | on Chrome cellphones go on the 3 dots on the top right and select translate in your preferred language | on laptop right click your mouse and select option translate when hoovering on the page

     

    plant name

     

    Ginseng, Chinese Panax

     

    International Latin denomination

     

    Panax ginseng CA Meyer = Aralia quinquefolia Decne et Planch.

    botanical family

     

    Araliaceae

     

    Description and habitat

     

    • Herbaceous plant from 30 to 50 cm, perennial with a large tuberous root, more and more branched with age
    • Leaves palmately lobed with 5 leaflets, in whorls
    • Umbels of 15 to 30 grouped whitish flowers
    • Fruit: small clustered light red berries
    • The most popular is that of Korea, then China and Viet-Nam ( Panax notoginseng Burk.) Japan ( Panax pseudoginseng Wall. = Panax japonicus CA Meyer) Araliaceae
    • We also use Panax quinquefolius L. or American Ginseng , not officinal (discovered by Father Lafitau in Canada among the Mohawk Indians, around Montreal)
      • The plant, which was once relatively abundant in the large natural maple groves of Quebec, has now practically disappeared. In the United States and Canada, wild ginseng is considered an endangered species and its harvest is prohibited.
      • Comparison of composition and effects between Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium [1]

     

    History and tradition

     

    • The root is said to recall the human form (anthropomorphic)
    • Long used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, and to reduce susceptibility to disease
    • Mentioned in writings dating from 3300 BC.
    • Qualified as “best medicine” in the oldest pharmacopoeia of Shen-Nong (496 BC)
    • In Asian medicine it is a preventive medicine (according to Chinese medicine strengthens the five viscera, heart liver lungs kidneys and spleen), and strengthens the blood
    • The first mention in France is due to the Jesuit father Jartoux in 1711
    • The name ginseng comes from the Chinese “jin seng” which means “man-root”
    • The anthropomorphic character increases with the age of the plant
    • Panax comes from the Greek “pana” everything and “axos” cure (which gave “panacea”)
    • Korean White Ginseng comes from 5-7 year old plants that have been washed, scraped and sun-dried
    • To obtain red ginseng , officinal in Japan, the roots are placed in baskets, then subjected to the action of water vapor for 1 to 4 hours, then dried and take on a horny, reddish appearance.
    • Another root, Aralia mandshurica Rupr. and Max. Araliaceae has an immuno-stimulating activity of phagocytosis persisting 70 days after administration

     

    Parts used

     

    • Roots: the best are the oldest, 5 years and more

     

    Dosage forms available

     

     

    Usual dosages

     

    • 3 grams of drug 1 to 3 times a day or equivalent, for a minimum of 4 weeks, extracts standardized to 7% ginsenosides

     

    Composition

     

    Main components of the plant

     

     

    Main components of buds or young shoots

     

    Main components of essential oil

     

    Properties

     

    Plant properties

     

    • Adaptogen: improves physical and intellectual performance, increases the body's resistance in an aspecific way [2] , [3] , [4] , [5]
    • Activity on stress hormones in postmenopausal women, improved cortisol/DHEA ratio [6]
    • Immunostimulant [7] , increases phagocytosis, stimulates T and B cell production [8] , induces dendritic cell maturation and Th-1 type immune response [9]
      • Adjuvant effect to immune reactions to ovalbumin [10]
      • Increases NK (natural killer) cell activity [11] , potentiates influenza vaccination by increasing NK cell activity [12]
    • Stimulation of brain activity via the pituitary gland
    • Action on GABA [13] , increase in blood dopamine level, dopaminergic effect [14] , [15] , potentialities in Parkinson's disease [16] , [17] , [18] , activates spontaneous motor activity during at night in aged rats [19]
      • Ginsenosides have significant activity on the central nervous system, they regulate different types of ion channels, inhibit the activity of voltage-gated Ca(2+), K(+), Na(+) channels, inhibit N channels -methyl-d-aspartate, nicotinic acetylcholine channels, and 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptors [20]
    • Improved memory capacity, stimulation of cognitive functions, acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity, action on the hippocampus [21]
    • Neuroprotective [22] , [23] , interest in Alzheimer's disease [24] , ginsenoside Re is neuroprotective [25]
    • Anabolic (kinship of ginsenosides with certain steroid hormones), improves symptoms of menopause
      • Ginsenosides are likely to activate various intracellular steroid receptors [26]
    • Stimulation of NO synthase at the cerebral, peripheral vascular, cardiac and uro-genital level [27]
      • The increase in NO synthase, particularly in the cavernous body, could explain the reputation of ginseng as an aphrodisiac and its traditional use in impotence.
    • Anti-inflammatory by action on TNF-alpha (see table of the effects of different ginseng extracts and each of the ginsenosides in this bibliographical reference [28] , ginseng polysaccharides could be used even in autoimmune diseases, the polysaccharide increases the expression of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in normal rats but lowers it in the intestinal mucosa during inflammation [29]
    • Decreased capillary permeability in experimental inflammations ( ginsenoside Ro), inhibition of platelet aggregability and thromboxane formation
    • Cardiac, renal and retinal protection in hypertensive rats by ginsenoside Rg1 [30]
    • Ginsenoside Rb3 protects cardiomyocytes against ischemia–reperfusion injury [31]
    • In athletes, increased oxygen absorption capacity, reduced blood lactate levels, decreased heart rate, reduced adrenaline hypersecretion by the adrenal medulla
      • Ginsenosides are inhibitors of catecholamine secretion (induced by acetylcholine) by bovine adrenergic chromaffin cells [32] , [33]
    • Lowers cholesterol and increases glucose tolerance ( glycans ), can allow the elderly to reduce doses of antidiabetics (slow action to manifest)
    • Antidiabetic by stimulating insulin secretion and increasing peripheral glucose consumption [34] , fermented ginseng reduces postprandial hyperglycemia [35]
    • Significant psychosomatic activity
    • Protection against gastric ulcer [38]
    • Improves the clearance of ethyl alcohol in humans, the blood alcohol level after absorption of an extract of Panax ginseng being lower than in controls, with the same alcoholic quantity absorbed [39]
    • Protection against certain cancers, depending on the different ginsenosides  : Rh-1, Rh-2 (inhibits the growth of human ovarian cancer cells in mice), Rg-3 (anti-angiogenic, inhibits the invasion by cancer cells and metastases), Rb-2 (inhibits angiogenesis) [40]

     

    Bud properties

     

    Properties of essential oil

     

    Indications

     

    Indications of the whole plant (phytotherapy)

     

    • The German Commission E approves ginseng as a tonic and fortification in times of fatigue, weakness, decline in work and concentration capacity and in times of convalescence.
    • The WHO (World Health Organization) monograph on "uses demonstrated by clinical studies" confirms the use of ginseng as a prophylactic and restorative agent for the improvement of mental abilities and physical, in cases of weakness, exhaustion, fatigue and loss of concentration and during convalescence
    • Menopause
    • Erectile dysfunction [41] , [42]
    • Sports preparation
    • Metabolic syndrome in association with Polygonum multiflorum [43]
    • Parkinson's disease (?) [44]

     

    Indications of the bud (gemmotherapy)

     

    Specific indications of essential oil (aromatherapy)

     

    Known or suspected mode of action

     

    • Action on GABA
    • Increased blood dopamine level
    • Increased oxygen uptake capacity, reduced blood lactate levels
    • Inhibition of platelet aggregability and thromboxane formation
    • Hormonal stimulation

     

    Usual formulations

     

    Regulations

     

     

    Possible side effects and precautions for use

     

    • Few adverse effects and drug interactions [45] , [46]
    • Pharmacokinetic interactions:
      • Weak interactions with CYP 1A2, 2C9, 2D6, 1E2, results of studies on CYP3A4 are contradictory, inhibition of P-glycoprotein, suspected drug interactions (each ginsenoside has an action on a different cytochrome p450)
    • Pharmacodynamic interactions:
      • Oral anticoagulants [47] , MAOIs, triptans, doubt with digitalis
    • Side effects :
      • At high doses: insomnia, nervousness, morning diarrhoea, hypertonia, menopausal metrorrhagia, arterial hypertension
      • Can cause gynecomastia in men
      • Contraindicated in pregnant and breastfeeding women
      • Contraindicated in prepubertal children
      • Not recommended in case of uncontrolled arterial hypertension, in psychoses
      • Due to its estrogenic properties, avoid its prescription in the history of gynecological cancers
    • Teratogenic in rats [48]
    • Ginseng is used in the composition of Soshiho-tang, a preparation of traditional Chinese or Japanese medicine plants, with good tolerance (with Bupleurum falcatum , Pinellia ternate , Scutellaria baicalensis , Zizyphus jujuba , Panax ginseng , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Zingiber officinale ) [49 ]

     

    Bibliographic references

     

    1. Go↑ Chen CF, Chiou WF, Zhang JT. Comparison of the pharmacological effects of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2008 Sep;29(9):1103-8. PMID 18718179
    2. Go↑ Goetz P, Stoltz P, Delaporte D. Ginseng. Therapeutic virtues of an adaptogenic plant. Ed.Springer. 2009.
    3. Go↑ Vogler BK, Pittler MH, Ernst E. The efficacy of ginseng. A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;55(8):567-75. PMID 10541774
    4. Go↑ Jia L, Zhao Y. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine--ginseng (I): etymology, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, market and regulations. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(19):2475-84. [1]
    5. Go↑ Jia L, Zhao Y, Liang XJ. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine- ginseng (II): Collected chemical entities, modern pharmacology, and clinical applications emanated from traditional Chinese medicine. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(22):2924-42. [2]
    6. Go↑ Tode T, Kikuchi Y, Hirata J, Kita T, Nakata H, Nagata I. Effect of Korean red ginseng on psychological functions in patients with severe climacteric syndromes. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1999 Dec;67(3):169-74. PMID 10659900 pdf
    7. Go↑ Kang S, Min H. Ginseng, the “Immunity Boost”: The Effects of Panax ginseng on Immune System. Journal of Ginseng Research. 2012;36(4):354-368. doi:10.5142/jgr.2012.36.4.354. texte intégral
    8. Go↑ Yang G, Yu Y. Immunopotentiating effect of traditional Chinese drugs--ginsenoside and glycyrrhiza polysaccharide. Proc Chin Acad Med Sci Peking Union Med Coll. 1990; 5(4):188-93. PMID 2293226
    9. Go↑ Takei M, Tachikawa E, Umeyama A. Dendritic Cells Promoted by Ginseng Saponins Drive a Potent Th1 Polarization. Biomark Insights. 2008 Apr 18;3:269-286. PMID 19578511
    10. Go↑ Sun J, Hu S, Song X. Adjuvant effects of protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol saponins from ginseng roots on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice. Vaccine. 2007 Jan 22;25(6):1114-20. PMID 17069940
    11. Go↑ Yun YS, Moon HS, Oh YR, Jo SK, Kim YJ, Yun TK. Effect of red ginseng on natural killer cell activity in mice with lung adenoma induced by urethan and benzo(a)pyrene. Cancer Detect Prev Suppl. 1987;1:301-9. PMID 3480057
    12. Go↑ Scaglione F, Cattaneo G, Alessandria M, Cogo R. Efficacy and safety of the standardised Ginseng extract G115 for potentiating vaccination against the influenza syndrome and protection against the common cold. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1996;22(2):65-72. PMID 8879982
    13. Go↑ Choi SE, Choi S, Lee JH, Whiting PJ, Lee SM, Nah SY. Effects of ginsenosides on GABA(A) receptor channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Arch Pharm Res. 2003 Jan;26(1):28-33. PMID 12568354
    14. Go↑ Kim SE, Shim I, Chung JK, Lee MC. Effect of ginseng saponins on enhanced dopaminergic transmission and locomotor hyperactivity induced by nicotine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006 Aug;31(8):1714-21. PMID 16251992 Texte intégral : [3]
    15. Go↑ Shim IS, Won JS, Lee JK, Song DK, Kim SE, Huh SO, Kim YH, Suh HW. Modulatory effect of ginseng total saponin on dopamine release and tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression induced by nicotine in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 May;70(2):161-9. PMID 10771206
    16. Go↑ Van Kampen JM, Baranowski DB, Shaw CA, Kay DG. Panax ginseng is neuroprotective in a novel progressive model of Parkinson's disease. Exp Gerontol. 2014 Feb;50:95-105. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2013.11.012. PMID 24316034
    17. Go↑ Van Kampen J, Robertson H, Hagg T, Drobitch R. Neuroprotective actions of the ginseng extract G115 in two rodent models of Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2003 Nov;184(1):521-9. PMID 14637121
    18. Go↑ Chen LW, Wang YQ, Wei LC, Shi M, Chan YS. Chinese herbs and herbal extracts for neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons and potential therapeutic treatment of Parkinson's disease. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2007 Aug;6(4):273-81. PMID 17691984
    19. Go↑ Watanabe H, Ohta H, Imamura L, Asakura W, Matoba Y, Matsumoto K. Effect of Panax ginseng on age-related changes in the spontaneous motor activity and dopaminergic nervous system in the rat. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1991 Jan;55(1):51-6. PMID 1674972
    20. Go↑ Nah SY, Kim DH, Rhim H. Ginsenosides: are any of them candidates for drugs acting on the central nervous system? CNS Drug Rev. 2007 Winter;13(4):381-404. PMID 18078425
    21. Go↑ Kim J, Shim J, Lee S, Cho W, Hong E, Lee J, Han J, Lee H, Lee K. Rg3-enriched ginseng extract ameliorates scopolamine-induced learning deficits in mice. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016, 16:66 (18 February 2016) Abstract texte intégral
    22. Go↑ Wei-Yi Ong, Tahira Farooqui, Hwee-Ling Koh, Akhlaq A. Farooqui, Eng-Ang Ling. Protective effects of ginseng on neurological disorders. Front Aging Neurosci. 2015; 7: 129. PMCID: PMC450393 doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2015.00129. texte intégral
    23. Go↑ Salman Khan, Alev Tosun, Yeong Shik Kim. Ginsenosides as Food Supplements and Their Potential Role in Immunological and Neurodegenerative Disorders. Bioactive Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements in Neurological and Brain Disease, Academic Press, 2015, Pages 303-309, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-411462-3.00031-X. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012411462300031X)
    24. Go↑ Heo JH, Lee ST, Chu K, Oh MJ, Park HJ, Shim JY, Kim M. An open-label trial of Korean red ginseng as an adjuvant treatment for cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Eur J Neurol. 2008 Aug;15(8):865-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02157.x. PMID 18684311.
    25. Go↑ Lee K, Jung SY, Choi S, Yang EJ. Effects of ginsenoside Re on LPS-induced inflammatory mediators in BV2 microglial cells. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:196 (26 October 2012) Abstract Provisional PDF
    26. Go↑ Attele AS, Wu JA, Yuan CS. Ginseng pharmacology: multiple constituents and multiple actions. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Dec 1;58(11):1685-93. PMID 10571242
    27. Go↑ Gillis CN. Panax ginseng pharmacology: a nitric oxide link? Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jul 1;54(1):1-8. PMID 9296344
    28. Go↑ Lee DC, Lau AS. Effects of Panax ginseng on Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Mediated Inflammation: A Mini-Review. Molecules 2011, 16, 2802-2816. PMID 21455094 texte intégral)
    29. Go↑ Hongyan Zhao, Wandong Zhang, Cheng Xiao, Cheng Lu, Shaohua Xu, Xiaojun He, Xiaobin Li, Shilin Chen, Dajian Yang, Albert Sun-chi Chan, Aiping Lu. Effect of ginseng polysaccharide on TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma produced by enteric mucosal lymphocytes in collagen induced arthritic rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(9), pp. 1536-1542 [4]
    30. Go↑ Hui Chen, Jun Yin, Yanping Deng, Min Yang, Lingling Xu, Fukang Teng, Defang Li, Yufan Cheng, Sha Liu, Dong Wang, Tingting Zhang, Wanying Wu, Xuan Liu, Shuhong Guan, Baohong Jiang and Dean Guo. The Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against hypertension target-organ damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012. [5]
    31. Go↑ Ma, L., Liu, H., Xie, Z., Yang, S., Xu, W., Hou, J., & Yu, B. (2014). Ginsenoside Rb3 protects cardiomyocytes against ischemia-reperfusion injury via the inhibition of JNK-mediated NF-κB pathway: a mouse cardiomyocyte model. PloS one, 9(8), e103628. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103628 PMID 25084093
    32. Go↑ Kudo K, Tachikawa E, Kashimoto T, Takahashi E. Properties of ginseng saponin inhibition of catecholamine secretion in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 1998 Jan 12;341(2-3):139-44. PMID 9543231
    33. Go↑ Tachikawa E, Kudo K, Kashimoto T, Takahashi E. Ginseng saponins reduce acetylcholine-evoked Na+ influx and catecholamine secretion in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 May;273(2):629-36. PMID 7752064
    34. Go↑ Hui H, Tang G, Go VL. Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms. Chin Med. 2009 Jun 12;4:11. PMID 19523223 Texte intégral : [6]
    35. Go↑ Oh MR, Park SH, Kim SY, Back HI, Kim MG, Jeon JY, Ha KC, Na WT, Cha YS, Park BH, Park TS1, Chae SW. Postprandial glucose-lowering effects of fermented red ginseng in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Jul 11;14(1):237. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-237. PMID 25015735 texte intégral
    36. Go↑ Goguen Jeanette. Alternative pathways for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: What is the science? Endocrinology – Scientific Conferences, May 2005, Volume 5, number 5 full text
    37. Go↑ Vuksan V, Stavro MP, Sievenpiper JL, Beljan-Zdravkovic U, Leiter LA, Josse RG, Xu Z. Similar postprandial glycemic reductions with escalation of dose and administration time of American ginseng in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2000 Sep;23(9):1221-6. PMID 10977009
    38. Go↑ Oyagi A, Ogawa K, Kakino M, Hara H. Protective effects of a gastrointestinal agent containing Korean red ginseng on gastric ulcer models in mice. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2010. [7]
    39. Go↑ Lee FC, Ko JH, Park JK, Lee JS. Effects of Panax ginseng on blood alcohol clearance in man. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1987 Jun;14(6):543-6. PMID 3677487
    40. Go↑ Shibata S. Chemistry and cancer preventing activities of ginseng saponins and some related triterpenoid compounds. J Korean Med Sci. 2001 Dec;16 Suppl:S28-37. PMID 11748374
    41. Go↑ Jang DJ, Lee MS, Shin BC, Lee YC, Ernst E. Red ginseng for treating erectile dysfunction: a systematic review. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;66(4):444-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2008.03236.x. PMID 18754850
    42. Go↑ Ernst E, Posadzki P, Lee MS. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction in older men and women: an overview of systematic reviews. Maturitas. 2011 Sep;70(1):37-41. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.06.011. PMID 21782365
    43. Go↑ Kho M, Lee Y, Park J, Cha J, Choi K, Kang D, Lee H. Combination with Red ginseng and Polygoni Multiflori ameliorates highfructose diet induced metabolic syndrome. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016, 16:98 (9 March 2016) Abstract texte intégral
    44. Go↑ Cho I-H. Effects of Panax ginseng in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Journal of Ginseng Research. 2012;36(4):342-353. doi:10.5142/jgr.2012.36.4.342
    45. Go↑ Coon JT, Ernst E. Panax ginseng: a systematic review of adverse effects and drug interactions. Drug Saf. 2002;25(5):323-44. PMID 12020172
    46. Go↑ Kitts D, Hu C. Efficacy and safety of ginseng. Public Health Nutr. 2000 Dec;3(4A):473-85. PMID 11276295
    47. Go↑ Vaes LP, Chyka PA. Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence. Ann Pharmacother. 2000 Dec;34(12):1478-82. PMID 11144706
    48. Go↑ L.Y. Chan, P.Y. Chiu, T.K. Lau. An in‐vitro study of ginsenoside Rb1‐induced teratogenicity using a whole rat embryo culture model. Hum. Reprod. (2003) 18 (10): 2166-2168 [8]
    49. Go↑ Shin IS, Lee MY, Kim Y, Seo CS, Kim JH, Shin HK. Subacute toxicity and stability of Soshiho-tang, a traditional herbal formula, in Sprague--Dawley rats. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:266 (27 December 2012) Abstract, Provisional PDF
    • Tanaka O, Nagai M, Shibata S. Chemical studies on the oriental plant drugs. XVI. The stereochemistry of protopanaxadiol, a genuine sapogenin of ginseng. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1966 Oct;14(10):1150-6. PMID 5976941
    • O. Tanaka, M. Nagai, S. Shibata. The stereochemistry of protopanaxadiol, a genuine sapogenin of ginseng. Tetrahedron Letters, Volume 5, Issue 33, 1964, Pages 2291–2297
    • Ying Hua Jin, JoonSeok Choi, Soona Shin, Kwang Youl Lee, Jeong Hill Park, Seung Ki Lee. Panaxadiol selectively inhibits cyclin A-associated Cdk2 activity by elevating p21WAF1/CIP1 protein levels in mammalian cells. Carcinogenesis (2003) 24 (11): 1767-1772. Texte intégral

    CAUTION

    Store in a cool, dry place, away from light. Keep tightly closed, away from the reach of Children and pets.

    Do not exceed the daily dose.

     

    This product is not intended to prevent or cure any form of illness or disease.
     

    If you are pregnant or nursing ; If you have a medical condition or are in the course of medical treatment ; If you are programmed for theater/operation in the near future, please consult your healthcare practitioner before using this product.

     

    This product cannot replace a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle.

     

    This product has not been evaluated by the SAHPRA for its quality, safety or intended use.

     

    For More Information please check our General Safety Herbal products Page