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St John's Wort Cut Dried - 75 g

R 8900
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Description
St John's wort tea may help to ease anxiety, tiredness, loss of appetite, depression and with sleeping problems.

INFORMATION

Source : http://www.wikiphyto.org/wiki/St John's Wort

 

Reference on http://www.wikiphyto.org

 

Translation in English by Google Translate  (go to the page of the source linked | on Chrome cellphones go on the 3 dots on the top right and select translate in your preferred language | on laptop right click your mouse and select option translate when hoovering on the page

 

plant name

 

St. John's wort, St. John 's wort, perforated St. John's wort , St John's wort (English)

 

International Latin denomination

 

Hypericum perforatum L.

 

botanical family

 

Clusiaceae (= Guttiferaceae = Hypericaceae)

 

Description and habitat

 

  • Herbaceous plant of Eurasian origin, perennial, erect angular stem, branching
  • Up to 80 cm high
  • Oval leaves, opposite and punctuated with black on the edges ( hypericin secretory pockets ), presenting on their surface numerous small translucent essence pockets, visible by transparency as small perforations, justify its name (the adjective “perforated” is therefore a pleonasm)
  • Bright yellow flowers grouped in panicles
  • The plant is currently cultivated in many temperate regions of the world to meet very high demand.

 

History and tradition

 

  • One of the flowers of Saint John
  • Was used in the manufacture of "tranquil balm" and nowadays "Commander's balm" because of its vulnerary properties, in the Middle Ages, treated cases of dementia
  • Associated with solar cults for two reasons: flowering at St Jean, and bright red coloring of the oily macerate of the flowers after exposure to light for several weeks
  • We only find mention of its antidepressant properties from the 1960s in Germany, where it was extensively studied, with numerous pharmacological and clinical studies.
  • Decision of January 22, 2001 published in the Official Journal of January 27, 2001: any magistral preparation of St. John's Wort, even homeopathic, must include the following statement on the packaging: “warning, risk of drug interaction. The combination of this preparation of St. John's wort with other drugs can lead to a reduction in their effectiveness. Conversely, a sudden interruption of the intake of St. John's wort can increase the toxicity of these drugs. Ask your doctor or pharmacist."

 

Parts used

 

  • Flowering tops harvested in summer

 

Dosage forms available

 

 

Usual dosages

 

  • 600 mg per day of dry extract titrated to 0.2% minimum hypericin or equivalent galenic forms
  • Corresponds to 2-4 g of drug, 0.2-1 mg of hypericin
  • A mother tincture contains on average 5 mg of hypericin per 100 ml, which corresponds, for a daily dose of 3 times 20 drops (= 3 ml), to a quantity of 0.15 mg of hypericin
  • In general 2 to 3 doses per day (i.e. 1 mg to 3 mg maximum of total hypericins )
  • Minimum dose of hypericin for activity: 0.6 to 1 mg/day

 

Composition

 

Main components of the plant

 

 

Main components of buds or young shoots

 

Main components of essential oil

 

 

Properties

 

Plant properties

 

  • Antidepressant, the activity is linked to an inhibition of the reuptake of neuromediators (especially serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine) and a moderate interaction with GABA -A receptors ( hyperforin especially), [3] , [4] , [5 ] , [6] , [7] , [8] , [9] , [10] , hyperforin would be the most serious candidate, but the antidepressant effect is probably due to a synergy between different substances [11] , [12]
  • Anxiolytic [13] , [14]
  • Sedative [15] even with extracts lacking hyperforin
  • Many molecules are synergistic with each other, by two complementary mechanisms:
    • Pharmacodynamic synergy, where components have effects on the same targets or multi-target effects: hypericin , flavonols and xanthones inhibit monoamine oxidase MAO and catechol-O-methyltransferase COMT, hyperforin inhibits serotonin reuptake
    • Pharmacokinetic synergy, which affects the absorption, distribution, biotransformation, or elimination of molecules: procyanidin increases the water solubility of naphthodianthrones, therefore their bioavailability [16]
  • Hydro-alcoholic extracts are selective inhibitors of type A mono-amine oxidase (MAO) by flavonoids and xanthones (which would nevertheless be present in too small quantities), inhibition of catechol-O-methyl transferase [17]
  • Hypericin has weak activity (preparations lacking it are active) but it binds to receptors for the Y1 and Y2 neuropeptides, thought to play a role in anxiety and depressive states. Naphthodianthrones are very reactive in the presence of light and they are the ones that provide the red color of the oil
  • Flavonoids are also catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors , but studies show too little activity in this regard and in the inhibition of MAO
  • Amentoflavone binds to the benzodiazepine receptor
  • Hypericin is sedative and melatonergic
  • Hypericin may fight cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex [ 18]
  • Neuroprotecteur [19]
  • Hyperoside acts on human brain tumors
  • Hyperforin induces inhibition of tumor growth of leukemia cells, cerebral glioblastoma cells, synergistically with hypericin and procyanidin B2, activation of caspases, induction of apoptosis [20]
  • Serotonergic and melatonergic (causes an increase in melatonin levels)
  • Modest activity against behavioral stressors [21]
  • St. John's wort powder-based products for oral consumption, sold without medical prescription, are currently marketed in France illegally
  • In the fresh plant, naphthodianthrones exist in proto- or precursor form ( protohypericin ), protohypericin is much weaker phototoxic
  • Anti-inflammatory and analgesic [22]
  • Cholagogue, digestive
  • Anti-asthmatic?
  • Externally: antiseptic, astringent, healing, vulnerary, especially in the form of oily maceration [23]
  • Usable in the treatment of inflammatory periodontal disease, inhibits plasma extravasation and decreases bone resorption [24]
  • Hypericin can be an agent for photo-detection and dynamic phototherapy of ovarian cancer micrometastases [6]

 

Bud properties

 

Properties of essential oil

 

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Potential anti-angiogenic properties [26]

 

Indications

 

Indications of the whole plant (phytotherapy)

 

  • Depressive states (mild to moderate depression), especially seasonal depression, and occurring during nervous fatigue and physiological states such as menopause
  • A meta-analysis [27] in 1996 reported the results of 27 trials (out of 1757 patients in all) comparing St. John's wort either with a placebo or with active treatments. It suggests that St. John's wort is more effective than a placebo and as effective as low-dose tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) in treating depression. Its mechanism of action seems similar to that of classic antidepressants: inhibition of the reuptake of monoamines
  • A double-blind trial of 324 patients with mild to moderate depression treated with a 0.2% alcoholic extract of hypericin showed identical efficacy to 50 mg imipramine twice daily [28] , another study showed the same efficacy as imipramine, with better tolerance [29]
  • Similar efficacy to IRS (serotonin reuptake inhibitors) in a meta-analysis [30]
  • It was observed, in patients treated with an extract of St. John's wort, a significant reduction in the Hamilton score (initial evaluation scale of depression) compared to patients treated with paroxetine, with improvement in the severity score of depression and better medium-term remission [31]
  • Efficacy and good tolerance [32]
  • No positive effects should be expected before 10 - 14 days of treatment
  • Stop if no effect has appeared after 4 to 6 weeks of treatment
  • According to the experience of clinicians, the effectiveness is clearer in winter-like depression (action on melatonin?)
  • Wounds and burns, sunburn (external route)

 

Indications of the bud (gemmotherapy)

 

Specific indications of essential oil (aromatherapy)

 

Known or suspected mode of action

 

  • The pharmacological activity seems to be attributable to a synergy between naphthodianthrones ( hypericin ), phloroglucinol derivatives ( hyperforin ) and different flavonoids [33].
  • Kielcorine ( xanthone ) would be one of the active principles
  • St. John's wort is a source of melatonin (Pr Robert Anton)
  • Mechanism of action: St. John's wort inhibits synaptosomal reuptake of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine (norepinephrine) with equal affinity
  • Also in vitro, it shows affinity for adenosine, GABA (A) and (B) and glutamate receptors
  • In vivo it exerts a decrease in beta-adrenergic activity at the level of its receptors and an increase in the activity of serotonin

 

Usual formulations

 

  • Dry extracts in capsules or tablets, dosed between 200 and 300 mg per capsule
    • Take 600 to 900 mg per day
  • Preparation of St. John's wort oil  : macerate a good handful of St. John's wort flowers in ¾ liter of olive oil (in a wide-necked container). Leave the bottle closed, in direct sunlight, for three weeks: the oil gradually takes on a beautiful red color. Attention, it is photosensitizing, it should not be used before sun exposure, only in burns or sunburn

 

Regulations

 

 

Possible side effects and precautions for use

 

  • Photosensitizing (by induction of singlet O2 formation)
  • Interactions [34] with "low therapeutic margin" drugs, including anti-retrovirals (anti-HIV such as indinavir [35] ), digoxin, theophylline, vitamin K antagonists, ciclosporin, contraceptives oral, SSRI antidepressants, amitriptyline, cyclosporine, fexofenadine, indinavir, methadone, midazolam, nevirapine, phenprocoumon, simvastatin, tacrolimus and warfarin. These interactions are linked to enzymatic induction of cytochrome P450 and induction of membrane glycoprotein P [36].
    • Possible reduction of drug effect secondary to decreased plasma concentration, as a result of possible induction of CYP2C9 isoenzyme, CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 [37] , [38] , induction of CYP3A activity , with reduced therapeutic efficacy of drugs metabolized by CYP3A, other sources do not find any alteration in the activity of CYP2C9, CYP1A2, CYP2D6 [39]
    • Interactions with protease and transcriptase inhibitors, immunosuppressants ciclosporin and tacrolimus, irinotecan, imatinib, low-dose hormonal contraceptives, serotonergic antidepressants by induction of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 ( hyperforin ) and P-glycoprotein ( hypericin ) [40]
    • A sudden interruption of the intake of St. John's wort can therefore also lead to an increase in the plasma concentration of these drugs.
    • St. John's wort gradually and powerfully induces the activity of CYP3A4, the elimination of ethinylestradiol, a major substrate of CYP3A4, will be greatly accelerated in the presence of St. John's wort, therefore the contraceptive effect will no longer be assured and another method of contraception [41]
    • In 2014, the MHRA (Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency) issued an alert on the risk of interaction between St. John's wort and hormonal contraceptives containing progesterone, microdose combination pills and etonogestrel implants: 19 suspicious interactions were reported between 2000 and 2014, including 15 unwanted pregnancies [42]
  • Hyperforin is presumably the main culprit of the interactions:
    • It has been shown that the hyperforin content of a St. John's wort preparation is significantly correlated with the level of CYP3A4 induction [43].
    • A low- hyperforin Hypericum extract was studied in 20 healthy volunteers receiving a drug cocktail, and no pharmacokinetic interactions were observed for CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein [44].
  • A few cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported in the literature in elderly patients treated with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant and having taken St. John's wort.
  • Good job security otherwise [45]
  • The essential oil can be allergenic

 

Bibliographic references

 

  1. Go↑ Meng X, Li Y, Li S, Zhou Y, Gan RY, Xu DP, Li HB. Dietary Sources and Bioactivities of Melatonin. Nutrients. 2017 Apr 7;9(4). pii: E367. doi: 10.3390/nu9040367.
  2. Go↑ Mathis, C & Ourisson, G. (1964). Chemo-taxonomic study of the genus Hypericum II. Identification of constituents of various essential oils of Hypericum. Phytochemistry. 3. 115-131. 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)84003-0.
  3. Go↑ Linde K, Ramirez G, Mulrow CD, Pauls A, Weidenhammer W, Melchart D - St John's wort for depression - an overview and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. - BMJ 1996 Aug 3;313(7052):253-258. PMID 8704532 [1]
  4. Go↑ Lecrubier Y., Clerc G., Didi R., Kieser M. Efficacy of St. John’s Wort Extract WS 5570 in major depression: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159:1361-1366. PMID 12153829
  5. Go↑ Knuppel L, Linde K. Adverse effects of St. John's Wort: a systematic review. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004 Nov;65(11):1470-9. PMID 15554758
  6. Go↑ Laakmann G, Schüle C, Baghai T, Kieser M - St John's wort in mild to moderate depression: the relevance of hyperforin for the clinical efficacy - Pharmacopsychiatry 1998; 31 (1): 54-59. PMID 9684948
  7. Go↑ Whiskey E, Werneke U, Taylor D - a systematic review and meta-analysis of Hypericum perforatum in depression : a comprehensive clinical review - Intern Clin Psychopharmacology 2001; 16: 239-252. PMID 11552767
  8. Go↑ Linde K., Berner M., Egger M., and Mulrow C. - St John's wort for depression: Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials - Br. J. Psychiatry, February 1, 2005; 186(2): 99 - 107. PMID 15684231
  9. Go↑ Linde K. St. John's wort - an overview. Forsch Komplementmed. 2009 Jun;16(3):146-55. PMID 19657198
  10. Go↑ Szegedi A, Kohnen R, Dienel A, Kieser M. Acute treatment of moderate to severe depression with hypericum extract WS 5570 (St John's wort): randomised controlled double blind non-inferiority trial versus paroxetine. BMJ. 2005 Mar 5;330(7490):503. doi: 10.1136/bmj.38356.655266.82. Epub 2005 Feb 11. Erratum in: BMJ. 2005 Apr 2;330(7494):759. Dosage error in article text. PMID 15708844; PMCID: PMC552808. texte intégral
  11. Go↑ Potherat JJ and Fontanel D. Folder St. John's Wort, in the Letter of Phytotherapy. No. 2 - 3rd quarter 2007.
  12. Go↑ Barnes J, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.): a review of its chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001 May;53(5):583-600. PMID 11370698
  13. Go↑ Beijamini V, Andreatini R. Effects of Hypericum perforatum and paroxetine on rat performance in the elevated T-maze. Pharmacol Res. 2003 Aug;48(2):199-207. PMID 12798673
  14. Go↑ Flausino OA Jr, Zangrossi H Jr, Salgado JV, Viana MB. Effects of acute and chronic treatment with Hypericum perforatum L. (LI 160) on different anxiety-related responses in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002 Jan-Feb;71(1-2):251-7. PMID 11812530
  15. Go↑ Coleta M, Campos MG, Cotrim MD, Proença da Cunha A. Comparative evaluation of Melissa officinalis L., Tilia europaea L., Passiflora edulis Sims. and Hypericum perforatum L. in the elevated plus maze anxiety test. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001 Jul;34 Suppl 1:S20-1. PMID 11518069
  16. Go↑ Spinella, M. (2002). The importance of pharmacological synergy in psychoactive herbal medicines. Alternative Medicine Review, 7(2), 130-137. PMID 11991792
  17. Go↑ Bennett DA Jr, Phun L, Polk JF, Voglino SA, Zlotnik V, Raffa RB. Neuropharmacology of St. John's Wort (Hypericum). Ann Pharmacother. 1998 Nov;32(11):1201-8. PMID 9825087
  18. Go↑ Bézanger-Beauquesne L, Pinkas M, Torck M, Trottin F. Medicinal plants of temperate regions. Ed. Maloine. Paris. 1980. p. 141.
  19. Go↑ Oliveira AI, Pinho C, Sarmento B, Dias AC. Neuroprotective Activity of Hypericum perforatum and Its Major Components. Front Plant Sci. 2016 Jul 11;7:1004. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01004. eCollection 2016. PMID 27462333
  20. Go↑ Hostanska K, Reichling J, Bommer S, Weber M, Saller R. Hyperforin a constituent of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) extract induces apoptosis by triggering activation of caspases and with hypericin synergistically exerts cytotoxicity towards human malignant cell lines. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2003 Jul;56(1):121-32. PMID 12837490
  21. Go↑ Kumar A, Garg R, Prakash AK. Effect of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) treatment on restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alteration in mice. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2010. [2]
  22. Go↑ Kumar V, Singh PN, Bhattacharya SK. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Indian Hypericum perforatum L. Indian J Exp Biol. 2001 Apr;39(4):339-43. PMID 11491578
  23. Go↑ Süntar, I., Akkol, E. K., Keleş, H., Oktem, A., Başer, K. H. C., & Yeşilada, E. (2011). A novel wound healing ointment: A formulation of Hypericum perforatum oil and sage and oregano essential oils based on traditional Turkish knowledge. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 134(1), 89–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JEP.2010.11.061
  24. Go↑ Paterniti I, Briguglio E, Mazzon E, Galuppo M, Oteri G, Cordasco G, Cuzzocrea S. Effects of Hypericum Perforatum, in a rodent model of periodontitis. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2010, 10:73 (23 November 2010) [3]
  25. Go↑ Zofou D, Kowa TK, Wabo HK, Ngemenya MN, Tane P, Titanji VP. Hypericum lanceolatum (Hypericaceae) as a potential source of new anti-malarial agents: a bioassay-guided fractionation of the stem bark. Malaria Journal. 2011;10:167. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-10-167. texte intégral
  26. Go↑ Kıyan HT, Demirci B, Başer KH, Demirci F. The in vivo evaluation of anti-angiogenic effects of Hypericum essential oils using the chorioallantoic membrane assay. Pharm Biol. 2014 Jan;52(1):44-50. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2013.810647. PMID 24044783
  27. Go↑ Linde K, Mulrow CD. St. John’s Wort for Depression (Cochrane Review). In : The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2000. Oxford : Update Software. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD000448/frame.html
  28. Go↑ Vorbach EU, Arnoldt KH, Hubner WD: Efficacy and tolerability of St. John's wort extract LI 160 versus Imipramine in Patients with Severe Depressive Episodes According to ICD-10. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997 Sep;30 Suppl 2:81-85.
  29. Go↑ Woelk H : comparison of St John’s wort and imipramine for treating depression : A randomised controlled trial. Br Med J, septembre 2000 ; 321 : 536-9. PMID 10968813
  30. Go↑ Ng QX, Venkatanarayanan N, Ho CY. Clinical use of Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) in depression: A meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2017 Mar 1;210:211-221. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.12.048. PMID 28064110.
  31. Go↑ Seifritz E, Hatzinger M, Holsboer-Trachsler E. Efficacy of Hypericum extract WS(®) 5570 compared with paroxetine in patients with a moderate major depressive episode - a subgroup analysis. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2016 Sep;20(3):126-32. doi: 10.1080/13651501.2016.1179765. PMID 27161105
  32. Go↑ Zirak N, Shafiee M, Soltani G, Mirzaei M, Sahebkar A. Hypericum perforatum in the treatment of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders: Current evidence and potential mechanisms of action. J Cell Physiol. 2019 Jun;234(6):8496-8508. doi: 10.1002/jcp.27781. PMID 30461013.
  33. Go↑ Butterweck V. Mechanism of action of St John's wort in depression : what is known? CNS Drugs. 2003;17(8):539-62. PMID 12775192
  34. Go↑ Russo E, Scicchitano F, Whalley BJ, Mazzitello C, Ciriaco M, Esposito S, Patanè M, Upton R, Pugliese M, Chimirri S, Mammì M, Palleria C, De Sarro G. Hypericum perforatum: pharmacokinetic, mechanism of action, tolerability, and clinical drug-drug interactions. Phytother Res. 2014 May;28(5):643-55. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5050. PMID 23897801
  35. Go↑ Piscitelli SC, Burstein AH, Chaitt D, Alfaro RM, Falloon J. Indinavir concentrations and St John's wort. Lancet. 2000 Feb 12;355(9203):547-8. PMID 10683007
  36. Go↑ Zhou S, Chan E, Pan SQ, Huang M, Lee EJ. Pharmacokinetic interactions of drugs with St John's wort. J Psychopharmacol. 2004 Jun;18(2):262-76. PMID 15260917
  37. Go↑ Natural health products, to better advise patients. Reference document of the College of Physicians and the Order of Pharmacists of Quebec, 2004.
  38. Go↑ Obach RS. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by constituents of St. John's Wort, an herbal preparation used in the treatment of depression. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Jul;294(1):88-95. PMID 10871299
  39. Go↑ Wang Z, Gorski JC, Hamman MA, Huang SM, Lesko LJ, Hall SD. The effects of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on human cytochrome P450 activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Oct;70(4):317-26. PMID 11673747
  40. Go↑ Mannel M. Drug interactions with St John's wort : mechanisms and clinical implications. Drug Saf. 2004;27(11):773-97. PMID 15350151
  41. Go↑ Center for Therapeutic Information and Pharmacovigilance, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospitals, Geneva [4]
  42. Go↑ St John’s wort: interaction with hormonal contraceptives, including implants (St John’s wort interacts with hormonal contraceptives reducing the effectiveness and increasing the risk of unplanned pregnancy). Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Published 12 March 2014 [5]
  43. Go↑ Nicolussi, S, Drewe, J, Butterweck, V, Meyer zu Schwabedissen, HE. Clinical relevance of St. John's wort drug interactions revisited. Br J Pharmacol. 2020; 177: 1212– 1226. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.14936
  44. Go↑ Zahner, C., Kruttschnitt, E., Uricher, J., Lissy, M., Hirsch, M., Nicolussi, S., Krähenbühl, S. and Drewe, J. (2019), No Clinically Relevant Interactions of St. John's Wort Extract Ze 117 Low in Hyperforin With Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and P‐glycoprotein. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 106: 432-440. doi:10.1002/cpt.1392
  45. Go↑ Peron AP, Mariucci RG, de Almeida IV, Düsman E, Mantovani MS, Vicentini VE. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of a natural antidepressant, Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort), on vegetal and animal test systems. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:97 (6 May 2013) Abstract Provisional PDF
  • Final report on the safety assessment of Hypericum perforatum extract and Hypericum perforatum oil. Int J Toxicol. 2001;20 Suppl 2:31-9. PMID 11558639
  • Wong AH, Smith M, Boon HS. Herbal remedies in psychiatric practice. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998 Nov;55(11):1033-44. PMID 9819073
  • Delini-Stula A, Lorenz J, Holsboer-Trachsler E. Herbal antidepressants. Forum Med Switzerland Nov. 2002 No48, 1146-1154. http://www.medicalforum.ch/pdf/pdf_e/2002/2002-48/2002-48-147.PDF
  • Wichtl Max, Anton Robert. Therapeutic plants: Tradition, officinal practice, science and therapy. Ed. Tec & Doc. Cachan. 1999. p. 280
  • Weber Wendy; Vander Stoep Ann; McCarty Rachelle L.; Weiss Noel S.; Biederman Joseph; McClellan Jon. Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA. 2008;299(22):2633-2641.
  • Re L, Corneli C, Sturani E, Paolucci G, Rossini F, León OS, Martínez G, Bordicchia M, Tomassetti Q. Effects of Hypericum extract on the acetylcholine release: a loose patch clamp approach. Pharmacological Research, Volume 48, Issue 1, July 2003, Pages 55-60 [7]
  • Boulard Bernard. Medicinal plants of the world. Ed. ESTEM. 2001 p.627

CAUTION

Store in a cool, dry place, away from light. Keep tightly closed, away from the reach of Children and pets.

Do not exceed the daily dose.

 

This product is not intended to prevent or cure any form of illness or disease.
 

If you are pregnant or nursing ; If you have a medical condition or are in the course of medical treatment ; If you are programmed for theater/operation in the near future, please consult your healthcare practitioner before using this product.

 

This product cannot replace a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle.

 

This product has not been evaluated by the SAHPRA for its quality, safety or intended use.

 

For More Information please check our General Safety Herbal products Page