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Valerian cut roots - 100 g - Herbal Collection

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Description
Valerian cut roots - 100 g - Herbal Collection

Valeriana officinalis

TRADITIONALLY USED FOR

Numerous studies have been conduct on Valerian to confirm its potential effectiveness as a medicine. These studies have found that it may possess the following medical benefits:

Anxiolytic properties.

Treatment for insomnia.

Treatment for digestive problems.

Reducing menopausal symptoms.

IDENTIFICATION

Valerian

Valerian officinalis

Areas of origin: Europe and Asia

Certification:

Organic EU; Organic NOP/COR; SAGAP; HACCP


 

DESCRIPTION

Valerian is a flowering perennial plant with a long history of use a medical herb. Its use in traditional medicine dates back to Ancient Greece where it was used as a treatment for insomnia. Throughout the ages it has been used in a variety of European and Asian cultures as a treatment for colds and flus, and was believed to prevent the black plague in the 13th century. Today, Valerian root extract is produced for uses in the modern medicinal industry, traditional medicine and herbal teas. 

INFORMATION

Source : http://www.wikiphyto.org/wiki/Valerian

 

Reference on http://www.wikiphyto.org

 

Translation in English by Google Translate  (go to the page of the source linked | on Chrome cellphones go on the 3 dots on the top right and select translate in your preferred language | on laptop right click your mouse and select option translate when hoovering on the page

 

plant name

 

Valerian, catnip

 

International Latin denomination

 

Valeriana officinalis L.

 

botanical family

 

ex- Valerianaceae

  • Caprifoliaceae according to the APG IV phylogenetic classification

 

Description and habitat

 

  • Robust herbaceous plant of damp places
  • Stems hollow, grooved, sometimes reaching 2 m, much branched at the top
  • Basal or cauline leaves, pinnatisect and with toothed lobes
  • Umbelliform terminal cymes of white or pink flowers
  • Common throughout temperate Europe

 

History and tradition

 

  • Its name comes from the Latin "valere" = "to be well" (which gave "validity" and "convalescence"), it is present in many traditions (the genus has 200 species)
  • Before the advent of synthetic tranquilizers, valerian root was considered the most effective tranquilizer. In Greek Antiquity, Hippocrates and Dioscorides recommended it to treat insomnia. The Romans used it to combat palpitations and arrhythmia. In the Middle Ages, valerian was recommended as a tranquilizer and sleep aid. From the end of the 16th century, Europeans began to use it to treat epilepsy. Native Americans used it in powder form to calm epileptic seizures. During the First World War, the use of valerian developed to treat nervous shock caused by bombardments. Today, it is cultivated in many countries to meet the demand of the pharmaceutical industry [1]
  • The smell of the root is identical to that of feline urine, hence its name catnip .

 

Parts used

 

  • Underground part becoming very fragrant by desiccation, with unpleasant smell: rhizome, root and stolons, carefully dried at a temperature below 40° C
    • "dried underground organs, whole or fragmented, of Valeriana officinalis L. sl, comprising the rhizome surrounded by the roots and the stolons"

 

Dosage forms available

 

 

Usual dosages

 

  • At 100 mg the dry extract is thymoanaleptic and at 400 mg it is soporific
  • Indication in nervousness, dosage for an adult: 2 capsules of 270 mg morning and evening
  • Maximum dosage: 800 mg of dry extract, corresponding to approximately 4 to 5 g of root powder

 

Composition

 

Main components of the plant

 

 

Main components of buds or young shoots

 

Main components of essential oil

 

 

Properties

 

Plant properties

 

  • Sleep aid [2] , improves sleep structure and quality [3]
  • Anxiolytic [4] , [5] , by valerenic acid [6] , [7] , [8] , anxiolytic effect accentuated in combination with lemon balm [9] , spasmolytic, sedative, tranquilliser, muscle relaxant and nervous system depressant
  • Valerian extracts show partial agonist activity at the adenosine A receptor (playing a role in neurotransmitter release) [15]
  • Valerian exhibits GABAergic effects through various molecular synergies [16] , [17]  :
    • Low concentrations of valerian extracts enhance the binding of benzodiazepines to the GABA-A receptor, and valerenic acid inhibits the enzymatic degradation of GABA [18] , [19]
    • Valerenic acid also interacts with glutamatergic receptors [20]
  • Other suspected synergies:
  • Decreases induced stress by decreasing the level of monoaminergic neurotransmitters [26]
  • Agonist of 5-HT5a receptors, role in the serotonergic regulation of the circadian cycle [27] , increases the level of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) and causes proliferation of hippocampal cells in depressed rats [28]
  • Sedative, anticonvulsant [29] , antiepileptic in animal models [30]
  • Aqueous root extracts contain appreciable amounts of GABA which could directly cause sedation, but there is some controversy surrounding the bioavailability of this compound.
  • Valepotriates , antidepressants , are found very little in galenic preparations, but the degradation products ( baldrinals and other derivatives) are active
  • Valeranone is hypotensive at 5 mg/kg
  • Valerian overdose can lead to asthenia, hypotension, heavy-headedness, mydriasis, and abdominal pain.
  • Actinidin is an attractor for cats (found in Nepeta cataria )
  • It 's isovalerenic acid that "smells like feet"

 

Bud properties

 

Properties of essential oil

 

Indications

 

Indications of the whole plant (phytotherapy)

 

  • Excitement, insomnia, palpitations of nervous origin
  • Neurotonic states and neuro-vegetative dystonias in adults and children, alpha sympathetic hyperfunction of prolonged stress
  • Insufficient pituitary-adrenal response
  • Sleep disorders, especially sleep onset insomnia, associated with extracts of hops [31] , even after a single administration [32] , and lemon balm
  • Valerian improves sleep quality in postmenopausal women with insomnia [33]
    • A literature review of studies published between 1950 and 2009 showed that the use of valerian, alone or in combination with hops , is associated with an improvement in certain sleep parameters, but the authors call for further trials. randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled [34]
  • Anxiolytic and slightly anti-depressive, anxious ruminations, chronic exposure to stress, postural stress contractures (patient who loses footing), prevents memory loss in depressed patients
  • Adjuvant in smoking cessation and in epilepsy (petit mal des enfants)
  • Homeopathic indications: [35]
    • hysterical neuropathy, hyperesthesia, emotional exasperation, mood swings, decreased pain threshold, spasms, myoclonus, cramps, spasmophilia

 

Indications of the bud (gemmotherapy)

 

Specific indications of essential oil (aromatherapy)

 

Known or suspected mode of action

 

 

Usual formulations

 

Regulations

 

 

Possible side effects and precautions for use

 

  • A review of the literature concludes that there is no element allowing to question the safety, even in cancer patients [36].
  • Interactions with cytochromes P450 [37] , [38]
  • Possible interactions with benzodiazepines [39]
  • Rare cases of hepatotoxicity (?) Following administration of a herbal mixture containing valerian , three cases of hepatotoxicity have also been reported where hepatomegaly associated with acute hepatitis with centrilobular necrosis has been observed . The damage regressed, and liver function tests returned to normal three months after stopping treatment
  • Avoid children and pregnant women
  • Toxicity of valepotriates at 400 mg/kg

 

Bibliographic references

 

  1. Go↑ Valerian officinalis (Valeriana officinalis) Guide to production under organic management. Sector of organic medicinal plants in Quebec, 2009 [1]
  2. Go↑ Fernández-San-Martín MI, Masa-Font R, Palacios-Soler L, Sancho-Gómez P, Calbó-Caldentey C, Flores-Mateo G. Effectiveness of Valerian on insomnia: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Sleep Med. 2010 Jun; 11 (6): 505-11. PMID 20347389
  3. Go↑ Donath F, Quispe S, Diefenbach K, Maurer A, Fietze I, Roots I. Critical evaluation of the effect of valerian extract on sleep structure and sleep quality. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2000 Mar;33(2):47-53. PMID 10761819
  4. Go↑ Marder M, Viola H, Wasowski C, Fernández S, Medina JH, Paladini AC. 6-methylapigenin and hesperidin: new valeriana flavonoids with activity on the CNS. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 Jun;75(3):537-45. PMID 12895671
  5. Go↑ Miyasaka LS, Atallah AN, Soares BGO. Valerian for anxiety disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD004515. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004515.pub2. texte intégral Revue Cochrane
  6. Go↑ Becker A, Felgentreff F, Schröder H, Meier B, Brattström A. The anxiolytic effects of a Valerian extract is based on valerenic acid. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Jul 28;14:267. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-267. PMID 25066015 texte intégral
  7. Go↑ Murphy K, Kubin ZJ, Shepherd JN, Ettinger RH. Valeriana officinalis root extracts have potent anxiolytic effects in laboratory rats. Phytomedicine. 2010 Jul;17(8-9):674-8. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2009.10.020. PMID 20042323
  8. Go↑ Felgentreff F, Becker A, Meier B, Brattström A. Valerian extract characterized by high valerenic acid and low acetoxy valerenic acid contents demonstrates anxiolytic activity. Phytomedicine. 2012 Oct 15;19(13):1216-22. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2012.08.003. PMID 22944521
  9. Go↑ Kennedy DO, Little W, Haskell CF, Scholey AB. Anxiolytic effects of a combination of Melissa officinalis and Valeriana officinalis during laboratory induced stress. Phytother Res. 2006 Feb;20(2):96-102. PMID 16444660
  10. Go↑ Ortiz JG, Nieves-Natal J, Chavez P. Effects of Valeriana officinalis extracts on [3H]flunitrazepam binding, synaptosomal [3H]GABA uptake, and hippocampal [3H]GABA release. Neurochem Res. 1999 Nov;24(11):1373-8. PMID 10555777
  11. Go↑ Yuan CS, Mehendale S, Xiao Y, Aung HH, Xie JT, Ang-Lee MK. The gamma-aminobutyric acidergic effects of valerian and valerenic acid on rat brainstem neuronal activity. Anesth Analg. 2004 Feb;98(2):353-8, table of contents. PMID 14742369
  12. Go↑ Benke D, Barberis A, Kopp S, Altmann KH, Schubiger M, Vogt KE, Rudolph U, Möhler H. GABA A receptors as in vivo substrate for the anxiolytic action of valerenic acid, a major constituent of valerian root extracts. Neuropharmacology. 2009 Jan;56(1):174-81. PMID 18602406
  13. Go↑ Riedel E, Hänsel R, Ehrke G. Inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism by valerenic acid derivatives. Planta Med. 1982 Dec;46(4):219-20. PMID 7163416
  14. Go↑ Khom S, Baburin I, Timin E, Hohaus A, Trauner G, Kopp B, Hering S. Valerenic acid potentiates and inhibits GABA(A) receptors: molecular mechanism and subunit specificity. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Jul;53(1):178-87. PMID 17585957
  15. Go↑ Müller CE, Schumacher B, Brattström A, Abourashed EA, Koetter U. Interactions of valerian extracts and a fixed valerian-hop extract combination with adenosine receptors. Life Sci. 2002 Sep 6;71(16):1939-49. PMID 12175708
  16. Go↑ Caesar, L. K., & Cech, N. B. (2019). Synergy and antagonism in natural product extracts: when 1 + 1 does not equal 2. Natural product reports, 36(6), 869–888. https://doi.org/10.1039/c9np00011a PMID 31187844
  17. Go↑ Spinella, M. (2002). The importance of pharmacological synergy in psychoactive herbal medicines. Alternative Medicine Review, 7(2), 130-137. PMID 11991792
  18. Go↑ Santos, MS, Ferreira, F., Cunha, AP, Carvalho, AP, & Macedo, T. (1994). An aqueous extract of valerian influences the transport of GABA in synaptosomes. Medical Plant, 60 (3), 278–279. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-959476 PMID 8073095
  19. Go↑ Santos, M. S., Ferreira, F., Cunha, A. P., Carvalho, A. P., Ribeiro, C. F., & Macedo, T. (1994). Synaptosomal GABA release as influenced by valerian root extract--involvement of the GABA carrier. Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de therapie, 327(2), 220–231. PMID 7979830
  20. Go↑ Del Valle-Mojica LM, Ayala-Marín YM, Ortiz-Sanchez CM, Torres-Hernández BA, Abdalla-Mukhaimer S, Ortiz JG. Selective Interactions of Valeriana officinalis Extracts and Valerenic Acid with [H]Glutamate Binding to Rat Synaptic Membranes. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:403591. doi: 10.1155/2011/403591. PMID 21584239
  21. Go↑ Granger Renee E., Campbell Erica L., Johnston Graham A.R. (+)- And (−)-borneol: efficacious positive modulators of GABA action at human recombinant α1β2γ2L GABAA receptors. Biochemical Pharmacology Vol 69, Issue 7, 2005, pp 1101-1111 [2]
  22. Go↑ Houghton PJ. The scientific basis for the reputed activity of Valerian. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 May;51(5):505-12. PMID 10411208
  23. Go↑ Cui HS, Sok DE, Min BS, Kim MR. Protective action of 9-hydroxypinoresinol against oxidative damage in brain of mice challenged with kainic acid. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007 Apr;59(4):521-8. PMID 17430635
  24. Go↑ Kang HS, Chung HY, Byun DS, Choi JS. Further isolation of antioxidative (+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol-1-O-beta-D-glucoside from the rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza that acts on peroxynitrite, total ROS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. Arch Pharm Res. 2003 Jan;26(1):24-7. PMID 12568353
  25. Go↑ Marder M, Viola H, Wasowski C, Fernández S, Medina JH, Paladini AC. 6-methylapigenin and hesperidin: new valeriana flavonoids with activity on the CNS. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 Jun;75(3):537-45. PMID 12895671
  26. Go↑ Jung H, Yoo D, Kim W, Nam S, Kim J, Choi J, Kwak Y, Yoon Y, Hwang I. Valeriana officinalis root extract suppresses physical stress by electric shock and psychological stress by nociceptive stimulation-evoked responses by decreasing the ratio of monoamine neurotransmitters to their metabolites. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 14:476 (11 December 2014) Abstract texte intégral
  27. Go↑ Dietz BM, Mahady GB, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NR. Valerian extract and valerenic acid are partial agonists of the 5-HT5a receptor in vitro. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005 Aug 18;138(2):191-7. PMID 15921820
  28. Go↑ Tang JY, Zeng YS, Chen QG, Qin YJ, Chen SJ, Zhong ZQ. Effects of Valerian on the level of 5-hydroxytryptamine, cell proliferation and neurons in cerebral hippocampus of rats with depression induced by chronic mild stress. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2008 Mar;6(3):283-8. PMID 18334150 [3]
  29. Go↑ Leuschner J, Müller J, Rudmann M. Characterisation of the central nervous depressant activity of a commercially available valerian root extract. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Jun;43(6):638-41. PMID 8352816
  30. Go↑ Torres-Hernández B, Del Valle-Mojica L, Ortíz J. Valerenic acid and Valeriana officinalis extracts delay onset of Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-Induced seizures in adult Danio rerio (Zebrafish). BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2015, 15:228 (14 July 2015) Abstract texte intégral
  31. Go↑ Morin CM, Koetter U, Bastien C, Ware JC, Wooten V. Valerian-hops combination and diphenhydramine for treating insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Sleep. 2005 Nov;28(11):1465-71. PMID 16335333
  32. Go↑ Dimpfel W, Suter A. Sleep improving effects of a single dose administration of a valerian/hops fluid extract - a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled sleep-EEG study in a parallel design using electrohypnograms. Eur J Med Res. 2008 May 26;13(5):200-4. PMID 18559301
  33. Go↑ Taavoni S, Ekbatani N, Kashaniyan M, Haghani H. Effect of valerian on sleep quality in postmenopausal women: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Menopause. 2011 Sep;18(9):951-5. doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e31820e9acf. PMID 21775910
  34. Go↑ Salter S, Brownie S. Treating primary insomnia - the efficacy of valerian and hops. Aust Fam Physician. 2010 Jun;39(6):433-7. PMID 20628685
  35. Go↑ Guermonprez, Pinkas, Torck. Homeopathic Materia Medica. Ed. Doin. Paris. 1985, Boiron reissue. 1997.
  36. Go↑ Kelber O, Nieber K, Kraft K. Valerian: no evidence for clinically relevant interactions. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:879396. doi: 10.1155/2014/879396. PMID 25093031 texte intégral
  37. Go↑ Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA, Williams DK, Gentry WB, Khan IA, Shah A. In vivo effects of goldenseal, kava kava, black cohosh, and valerian on human cytochrome P450 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4/5 phenotypes. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 May;77(5):415-26. PMID 15900287
  38. Go↑ Lefebvre T, Foster BC, Drouin CE, Krantis A, Livesey JF, Jordan SA. In vitro activity of commercial valerian root extracts against human cytochrome P450 3A4. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2004 Aug 12;7(2):265-73. PMID 15367385
  39. Go↑ Carrasco MC, Vallejo JR, Pardo-de-Santayana M, Peral D, Martín MA, Altimiras J. Interactions of Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. in a patient treated with lorazepam. Phytother Res. 2009 Dec; 23 (12): 1795-6. doi: 10.1002 / ptr.2847. PMID 19441067
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CAUTION

As always with natural products you need to test for personal allergies and be cautious during pregnancy, nursing or taking medication. Please check with your health practitioner