Artichoke leaf Herbal Extract - 50 ml
Artichoke leaf Herbal Extract - 50 ml
Artichoke leaf (Cynara scolymus) is a perennial plant native to the Mediterranean region, with a long history of use in traditional medicine.
Here are some of the key properties, benefits, and traditional uses of artichoke leaf:
- Antioxidant properties: Artichoke leaf is rich in antioxidants, which help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. This may reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as heart disease and cancer.
- Liver protection: Artichoke leaf has been traditionally used to support liver health, possibly due to its ability to increase bile production and protect liver cells from damage. It may also help detoxify the liver and support overall liver function.
- Digestive health: Artichoke leaf has been used to alleviate digestive problems like indigestion, bloating, and constipation. It may stimulate bile production and help break down fats, resulting in improved digestion and nutrient absorption.
- Cholesterol management: Some studies suggest that artichoke leaf extract may help lower bad (LDL) cholesterol and increase good (HDL) cholesterol levels. This could potentially reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
- Blood sugar regulation: Artichoke leaf may have the potential to help regulate blood sugar levels by reducing the absorption of sugar in the bloodstream. This could be beneficial for people with type 2 diabetes or those at risk of developing the condition.
- Antimicrobial properties: Artichoke leaf extracts have demonstrated antimicrobial properties against a range of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This suggests that it may have potential uses in preventing or treating various infections.
- Anti-inflammatory effects: Artichoke leaf contains compounds with anti-inflammatory properties that may help reduce inflammation in the body, potentially easing symptoms of conditions like arthritis or inflammatory bowel disease.
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Artichoke, artichoke (English)
International Latin denomination
Description and habitat
- Large perennial herbaceous plant, with leaves in a pinnatisect rosette, strongly ribbed, not thorny (difference with cardoons)
- The flowers grouped in large flower heads 10-15 cm in diameter are carried by robust branching stems
- The flowers are tubular and inserted on a fleshy receptacle surrounded by bracts (leaf-shaped floral parts): these are the edible parts of the vegetable
History and tradition
- The species is an improved cardoon unknown in the wild
- Origin: the wild species ( Cynara cardunculus ) is native to East Africa (Ethiopia), Introduced in the Mediterranean basin and improved for cultivation, it is antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli 
- First year rosette leaves
Dosage forms available
- Herbal tea 1.5 g in infusion 4 times a day
- Powder 600 to 1500 mg per day
- Dry extract ( DER 2.5-7.5:1) 600-1320 mg per day
- Dry extract of fresh leaves ( DER 15-35:1) 900-2400 mg daily 
- In hepatobiliary diseases:
- Infused: 50 g of fresh leaves/litre, infusion for 15 minutes, drink one litre/day, intermittently. NB: bitterness limits its use
- Total extract: 1 to 3 g/day orally
- Fresh juice: used after purification for the preparation of various extracts
Main components of the plant
- Phenol acids : esters of caffeic acid ( 5-cafeyl-quinic acid = chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid , cynarin = 1,5-dicafeyl-quinic acid = dicafeylquinic acid
- Acid alcohols : malic acid (0.8%), succinic acid , lactic acid , fumaric acid , citric acid 
- Sesquiterpene lactones ( cynaropicrin and derivatives) of the guaianolide group
- Flavonoids : Luteolol ( luteolin ) glycosides: luteoloside and scolymoside , and apigenol ( apigenin ), luteolin-4'-glucoside , cynaroside , cosmoside , quercetin , rutin , luteolin-7-gentiobioside , hesperitin , hesperidoside , aesculetin-6 -O-beta-glucoside , maritimein 
- Coumarine : scopolétine
Main components of buds or young shoots
Main components of essential oil
- Cholagogue and choleretic 
- Hepatoprotective and anti-free radicals, hepatic regeneration ( 1,5-dicafeyl-quinic acid increases bile flow and protects the hepatocyte from carbon tetrachloride)  and hepatoprotective against paracetamol 
- Hepatoprotective effect  and marked antioxidant, inhibits the formation of malondialdehyde (indicator of oxidative stress) induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide 
- Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma by synergy Cynara scolymus , Silybum marianum , Cochlospermum angolense  , promotes apoptosis of some liver cancer cell lines 
- Cholesterol lowering ( cynarin , luteolin , cynaroside )  ,  ,  ,  , prevention of lipid peroxidation and arteriosclerosis 
- Hypoglycaemic, decreases postprandial hyperglycemia  , and appetite 
- The effects of artichoke extracts may depend in part on the effects of their active compounds on the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain system 
- Xanthine oxidase inhibitor, potentiality in hyperuricaemia and gout 
- Antioxidant and protective of vascular endothelium, suppresses generation of reactive oxygen species in cultured human endothelial cells  , protective against oxidative stress induced by inflammatory mediators and oxidized LDL in endothelial cells and monocytes in culture 
Properties of essential oil
Indications of the whole plant (phytotherapy)
- Various digestive disorders (but not recommended in case of obstruction of the bile ducts)
- Troubles dyspeptiques 
- Favorable effect in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  , improvement of ultrasound parameters and biology (AST, ALAT transaminases, total bilirubin, APRI score) 
- Hypercholesterolemia, “depuration”, cardiovascular prevention 
- Gout and hyperuricemia
Indications of the bud (gemmotherapy)
Specific indications of essential oil (aromatherapy)
Known or suspected mode of action
- Synergistic effect of phenolic acids and alcoholic acids in the diuretic action and on the liver
- 1,5-dicafeyl-quinic acid increases bile flow and protects the hepatocyte from carbon tetrachloride
- French Pharmacopoeia list A (sheet)
Possible side effects and precautions for use
- Not recommended in case of obstruction of the bile ducts
- Rare diarrheal reactions, bloating, gastralgia
- Modification of the perception of flavors
- Dermosensitizing effect of fresh juice, allergic risk
- Go↑ Falleh H, Ksouri R, Chaieb K, Karray-Bouraoui N, Trabelsi N, Boulaaba M, Abdelly C. Phenolic composition of Cynara cardunculus L. organs, and their biological activities. C R Biol. 2008 May;331(5):372-9. doi: 10.1016/j.crvi.2008.02.008. PMID 18472083
- Go↑ EMA European Medicines Agency, 13 September 2011, EMA/HMPC/150218/2009 Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC), Community herbal monograph on Cynara scolymus L., folium 
- Go↑ Bogaert JP, Mortier F, Jouany JM, Pelt JM, Delaveau P. Organic acids, principally acid-alcohols, in Cynara scolymus L. (Compositae). Ann Pharm Fr. 1972 Jun;30(6):401-8. PMID 5082443
- Go↑ Hinou J, Harvala C, Philianos S. Polyphenolic substances of Cynara scolymus L. leaves. Ann Pharm Fr. 1989;47(2):95-8. PMID 2610472
- Go↑ Wagenbreth D, Eich J. Pharmaceutically relevant phenolic constituents in artichoke leaves are useful for chemical classification of accessions . Acta Hort. (ISHS) 2005, 681:469-474 
- Go↑ Spiridonov NA (2012) Mechanisms of Action of Herbal Cholagogues. Med Aromat Plants 1:107. doi: 10.4172/2167-0412.1000107 texte intégral
- Go↑ Mehmetçik G, Ozdemirler G, Koçak-Toker N, Cevikbaş U, Uysal M. Effect of pretreatment with artichoke extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and oxidative stress. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2008 Sep;60(6):475-80. PMID 18583118
- Go↑ Donya, S. M., & Ibrahim, N. H. (2012). Antimutagenic potential of Cynara scolymus, Cupressus sempervirens and Eugenia jambolana against paracetamol-induced liver cytotoxicity. Journal of American Science, 8(1), 61-67. pdf
- Go↑ Colak E, Ustuner MC, Tekin N, et al. The hepatocurative effects of Cynara scolymus L. leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury in rats. SpringerPlus. 2016;5:216. doi:10.1186/s40064-016-1894-1. PMID 27026910
- Go↑ Gebhardt R. Antioxidative and protective properties of extracts from leaves of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) against hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in cultured rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 Jun;144(2):279-86. PMID 9194411
- Go↑ Carla Pereira, Ricardo C. Calhelha, Lillian Barros, Maria João R.P. Queiroz, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira. Synergisms in antioxidant and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activities of artichoke, milk thistle and borututu syrups. Industrial Crops and Products, Volume 52, January 2014, Pages 709–713
- Go↑ Miccadei S, Di Venere D, Cardinali A, Romano F, Durazzo A, Foddai MS, Fraioli R, Mobarhan S, Maiani G. Antioxidative and apoptotic properties of polyphenolic extracts from edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) on cultured rat hepatocytes and on human hepatoma cells. Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(2):276-83. doi: 10.1080/01635580801891583. PMID 18444161
- Go↑ Thompson Coon JS, Ernst E. Herbs for serum cholesterol reduction: a systematic view. J Fam Pract. 2003 Jun;52(6):468-78. Review. PMID 12791229.
- Go↑ Gebhardt R. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in primary cultured rat hepatocytes by artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extracts. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Sep;286(3):1122-8. PMID 9732368.
- Go↑ Wider B, Pittler MH, Thompson-Coon J, Ernst E. Artichoke leaf extract for treating hypercholesterolaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD003335. Review. PMID 19821306.
- Go↑ Küçükgergin C, Aydın AF, Ozdemirler-Erata G, Mehmetçik G, Koçak-Toker N, Uysal M. Effect of Artichoke Leaf Extract on Hepatic and Cardiac Oxidative Stress in Rats Fed on High Cholesterol Diet. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2009 Aug 4. PMID 19652921.
- Go↑ Küskü-Kiraz Z, Mehmetçik G, Dogru-Abbasoglu S, Uysal M. Artichoke leaf extract reduces oxidative stress and lipoprotein dyshomeostasis in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Phytother Res. 2010 Apr;24(4):565-70. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2985. PMID 19777605
- Go↑ Fantini N, Colombo G, Giori A, Riva A, Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E, Carai MA. Evidence of glycemia-lowering effect by a Cynara scolymus L. extract in normal and obese rats. Phytother Res. 2011 Mar;25(3):463-6. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3285. PMID 20737658
- Go↑ Loi B, Fantini N, Colombo G, Gessa GL, Riva A, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P, Carai MA. Reducing effect of a combination of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus extracts on food intake and glycemia in rats. Phytother Res. 2013 Feb;27(2):258-63. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4704. PMID 22565861
- Go↑ Juzyszyn Z, Czerny B, Myśliwiec Z, Pawlik A, Droździk M. The effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on respiratory chain system activity in rat liver mitochondria. Phytother Res. 2010 Jun;24 Suppl 2:S123-8. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2995. PMID 20091747
- Go↑ Sarawek Sasiporn. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of an Artichoke Leaf Extract (Cynara scolymus L.) and its Compounds. Thèse Pharmacie, 2007 texte intégral
- Go↑ Juzyszyn Z, Czerny B, Pawlik A, Droździk M. The effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on ROS generation in HUVEC cells. Phytother Res. 2008 Sep;22(9):1159-61. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2385. PMID 18780283
- Go↑ Zapolska-Downar D, Zapolski-Downar A, Naruszewicz M, Siennicka A, Krasnodebska B, Kołdziej B. Protective properties of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) against oxidative stress induced in cultured endothelial cells and monocytes. Life Sci. 2002 Nov 1;71(24):2897-08. PMID 12377270
- Go↑ Marakis G, Walker AF, Middleton RW, Booth JC, Wright J, Pike DJ. Artichoke leaf extract reduces mild dyspepsia in an open study. Phytomedicine. 2002 Dec;9(8):694-9. PMID 12587688
- Go↑ Rangboo V, Noroozi M, Zavoshy R, Rezadoost SA, Mohammadpoorasl A. The Effect of Artichoke Leaf Extract on Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase in the Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. Int J Hepatol. 2016;2016:4030476. doi: 10.1155/2016/4030476. PMID 27293900
- Go↑ Panahi Y, Kianpour P, Mohtashami R, Atkin SL, Butler AE, Jafari R, Badeli R, Sahebkar A. Efficacy of artichoke leaf extract in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial. Phytother Res. 2018 Jul;32(7):1382-1387. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6073. PMID 29520889
- Go↑ Rondanelli M, Monteferrario F, Perna S, Faliva MA, Opizzi A. Health-promoting properties of artichoke in preventing cardiovascular disease by its lipidic and glycemic-reducing action. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2013 Mar;80(1):17-26. PMID 23923586
- European Medicine Agency, Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC). Assessment report on Cynara scolymus L., folium. EMA/HMPC/150209/2009, 13 September 2011
Store in a cool, dry place, away from light. Keep tightly closed, away from the reach of Children and pets.
Do not exceed the daily dose.
This product is not intended to prevent or cure any form of illness or disease.
If you are pregnant or nursing ; If you have a medical condition or are in the course of medical treatment ; If you are programmed for theater/operation in the near future, please consult your healthcare practitioner before using this product.
This product cannot replace a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle.
This product has not been evaluated by the SAHPRA for its quality, safety or intended use.