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Astragalus Root Cut Dried ( Astragalus membranaceus ) - 75 g

R 12900
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Description

Astragalus may help with

  • upper respiratory infections,
  • liver problems, colds.
  • It has antibacterial and a
  • nti-inflammatory properties

INFORMATION

Source : http://www.wikiphyto.org/wiki/Astragalus

 

Reference on http://www.wikiphyto.org

 

Translation in English by Google Translate  (go to the page of the source linked | on Chrome cellphones go on the 3 dots on the top right and select translate in your preferred language | on laptop right click your mouse and select option translate when hoovering on the page

 

plant name

 

Astragale, Huang qi ou Huangqi , Hwanggi , Yu (chinois), Radix astragali

 

International Latin denomination

 

Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge, Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus Bge. Hsiao, Astragalus mongholicus Bge.

 

botanical family

 

Fabaceae

 

Description and habitat

 

History and tradition

 

  • Widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), as a tonic, to prevent weakening of the patient, protect against infections and increase endurance
  • Traditionally used as a preventive measure, in particular against respiratory infections, nephritis, uterine bleeding, diabetes mellitus, chronic bronchitis, urinary retention, leprosy and sequelae of cerebrovascular accidents [3]
  • Also in Kempo (traditional Japanese medicine)

 

Parts used

 

  • Root taken from a four to seven year old plant

 

Dosage forms available

 

 

Usual dosages

 

  • Root powder 4g to 7g/day (up to 30g/day [4] ), dry extract (1:8) 250mg, 2 to 3 times/day

 

Composition

 

Main components of the plant

 

 

Main components of buds or young shoots

 

Main components of essential oil

 

Properties

 

Plant properties

 

  • Adaptogen [9] , improves muscle performance [10] , immunomodulating, anti-tumor, antiviral [11] , anti-diabetic, anti-aging ( polysaccharides , triterpenes , flavonoids ) [12] , [13] , [14]
  • Immunostimulant [15] , [16] , astragaloside IV (AG-IV) and cycloastragenol (CAG), have been shown to enhance CD8+ T cell proliferative response [17]
    • Stimulates nitric oxide (NO) production and induces NO synthase (iNOS) production and transcription in macrophages [18] , activates B cells and macrophages, without activating T cells [19] , increases cytotoxicity Natural Killers [20]
    • Immunomodulant, may act in graft versus host disease [21 ]
    • Acts as a catalyst for interferon, which would increase antibody levels in nasal secretions and in the blood, increases the cytotoxicity of interleukin (polysaccharide fraction) [22]
    • Powerful immunorestorative activity in vitro [23] , [24] , [25]
    • Improves immunity in Herpes recurrences by regulating Th1/Th2 balance (decreases IL-4 and IL-10 levels, decreases IL-2 and IFN-gamma) [26]
    • Enhances antibody response to an antigen with increased T-helper cell activity in normal and immunosuppressed mice [27] , [3]
    • The decoction increased the phagocytic activity of the reticuloendothelial system [28]
  • Immunomodulating effect, could play a favorable role in autoimmune reactions:
    • In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, by decreasing the inflammatory response and demyelination, inhibiting T cell proliferation, and down-regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines [29] , [30] , [31] , may induce remyelination [32]
    • In experimental autoimmune myocarditis, moderates the elevation of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2), increases Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10), protecting myocardial cells from functional and morphological cardiac alterations [33]
    • In rheumatoid arthritis, decreased joint inflammation and serum TNF-α and IL1-β concentrations [34]
  • Antitumor activity [35] , inducer of apoptosis in colon cancer [36] , [37] and hepatocarcinoma [38] , [39]
    • Improves the tolerance of anti-cancer drugs, in intravenous injection in conjunction with conventional treatment [40]
    • Preventive of anticancer drug resistance by action on P-glycoprotein (H22 hepatoma cell lines resistant to Adriamycin) [41]
    • Anti-inflammatory, protection against gastrointestinal cancers [42]
    • Protect bone marrow cells
  • Antidiabetic potential [43] , [44] , [45] , [46] , inhibition of alpha-glucosidase [47]
  • Anti-inflammatory, anti-atheroclerotic by action on adhesion molecules [48]
  • Induction of growth hormone [49]
  • Anti-aging by activating telomerase:
    • Telomerase is a transcriptase enzyme that extends the main strand of DNA by adding TTAGGG base repeats to the end of the telomere. The maintenance of telomere length by telomerase has been shown to be strongly correlated with the lifespan of normal cells and the immortality of cancer cells. Aging of most somatic cells is accompanied by a decline in telomerase activity until it is undetectable, and leads to telomere shortening with each cell division [50].
    • An extract from the root of Astragalus membranaceus rich in astragaloside IV and cycloastragenol (TA-65) activates telomerase activity and increases the average length of telomeres [51] , [52] , [53] , reduces the percentage of telomeres too short and DNA damage in mouse embryonic fibroblasts with haploinsufficiency [54] , [55] cycloastragenol activates telomerase in neuronal cells [56]
    • Two isomers found in the root of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus (HDTIC-1 and HDTIC-2) slow the rate of telomere shortening by attenuating oxidative stress [57] and delay replicative senescence of human fetal lung fibroblasts by inhibiting the expression of the protein p16 involved in triggering senescence [58]
    • Astragaloside IV is converted by deglycosylation in the gastrointestinal tract to cycloastragenol , its aglycone
    • The ingestion of TA-65 based on cycloastragenol by elderly subjects for one year, in discontinuous courses, led to an increase in the length of telomeres in leukocytes (double-blind study against placebo) [59].
    • In vivo, a decrease in the percentage of senescent cytotoxic T cells is observed with a significant reduction in the percentage of short telomeres [60].
  • Antioxidant ( astragalosides , flavonoids , polysaccharides ), heart, brain, kidney, intestine, liver, lung protection [61] , free radical scavenger (hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide) [62]
  • Cardiovascular prevention, improvement of metabolic syndrome markers ( Astragalus polysaccharides ) [63]
  • Vascular protector, protects the vascular endothelium [64]
  • Kidney Protector [65]
  • Neuroprotector of dopaminergic neurons ( astragaloside IV), potentialities in Parkinson's disease [66] , increase in neuronal plasticity [67]
  • Protector of the blood-brain barrier during the mechanism of ischemia/reperfusion in rats [68]
  • Anticonvulsant (saponoside fraction) [69]
  • The active components of Astragalus, such as those of Epimedium and Radix Puerariae reduce cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease, exert a neuroprotective effect by reducing iron overload in the brain, inhibit the accumulation of β-plaques amyloids and may provide a new approach for the development of drugs against Alzheimer's disease [70]
  • Anti-allergic [71]
  • Anti-asthmatic [72] , [73] , probably by inhibition of Th2 and TGF-β1 cytokines [74]
  • Potentialities in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis [75]
  • Broad-spectrum antibiotic activity
  • Rebalancing of the intestinal flora in aged mice [76]
  • The fruit has anti-osteoporotic properties [77]

 

Bud properties

 

Properties of essential oil

 

Indications

 

Indications of the whole plant (phytotherapy)

 

  • Recurrent infections
  • Prevention of respiratory infections, prevention and treatment of colds
    • Oral or pernasal administration of an aqueous extract of Astragalus membranaceus to 1,000 human subjects decreased the incidence of the common cold and shortened its course, by significantly increasing IgA and IgG levels in nasal secretions [3 ]
  • Asthma
  • Glomerulonephritis and Ig A nephropathy [78]
  • Improved athletic performance
  • Lupus (?) [79]
  • Cancers (?)
  • Cancer of the colon (?) [80] , of the stomach (?) [81] , of the non-small cell lung [82] , association with anti-cancer drugs (?)
  • Prevention of aging (?)
  • Alzheimer's disease (?)

 

Indications of the bud (gemmotherapy)

 

Specific indications of essential oil (aromatherapy)

 

Known or suspected mode of action

 

  • cycloastragenol is well absorbed by the intestinal epithelium, but its metabolism during its first hepatic passage would limit its oral bioavailability [83] , biliary, faecal, renal elimination, there is an enterohepatic cycle (in rats)

 

Usual formulations

 

Regulations

 

Possible side effects and precautions for use

 

  • Mild gastrointestinal disorders (possible diarrhea)
  • Mild allergic reactions ( Fabaceae allergy )
  • Possible increase in diuresis
  • No adverse effects were observed in mice after oral administration of a dose of up to 100 g/kg [3]
  • Astragaloside IV ( AGS-IV) is a potent CYP1A2 inhibitor ( in vitro and in vivo rat studies ) [84]
  • Possible interactions with drugs metabolized by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (mainly UGT1A8 or UGT2B7), phase II enzymes responsible for glucurono-conjugation, if the plasma concentration is greater than 0.034 μM for astragaloside IV and 20.98 μM for cycloastragenol [85 ] v
  • Not recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding women
  • Avoid in subjects on immunosuppressive therapy and in hematopoietic cancers (due to stimulation of hematopoiesis)

 

Bibliographic references

 

  1. Go↑ Ma XQ, Shi Q, Duan JA, Dong TT, Tsim KW. Chemical analysis of Radix Astragali (Huangqi) in China: a comparison with its adulterants and seasonal variations. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Aug 14;50(17):4861-6. PMID 12166972
  2. Go↑ Li X, Qu L, Dong Y, Han L, Liu E, Fang S, Zhang Y, Wang T. A review of recent research progress on the astragalus genus. Molecules. 2014 Nov 17;19(11):18850-80. doi: 10.3390/molecules191118850. PMID 25407722
  3. Go to :3,0 3,1 3,2 et 3,3 WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants - Volume 1 - Radix Astragali texte intégral
  4. Go↑ Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (English ed.). Guangzhou, Guangdong Science and Technology Press, 1992
  5. Go↑ Long-Ze Lin, Xian-Guo He, Michael Lindenmaier, Gary Nolan, Jie Yang, Michael Cleary , Sheng-Xiang Qiu , Geoffrey A. Cordell. Liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry study of the flavonoids of the roots of Astragalus mongholicus and A. membranaceus. Journal of Chromatography A, 876 (2000) 87–95texte intégral
  6. Go↑ Ma X, Zhang T, Wei Y, Tu P, Chen Y, Ito Y. Preparative isolation and purification of calycosin from Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao by high-speed counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2002 Jul 12;962(1-2):243-7. PMID 12198969
  7. Go↑ Ma X, Tu P, Chen Y, Zhang T, Wei Y, Ito Y. Preparative isolation and purification of isoflavan and pterocarpan glycosides from Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao by high-speed counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2004 Jan 16;1023(2):311-5. PMID 14753698
  8. Go↑ Bratkov VM, Shkondrov AM, Zdraveva PK, Krasteva IN. Flavonoids from the Genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity. Pharmacogn Rev. 2016 Jan-Jun;10(19):11-32. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.176550. PMID 27041870
  9. Go↑ Winston David, Maimes Steven. Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief, Healing Arts Press, 2007
  10. Go↑ Yeh TS, Chuang HL, Huang WC, Chen YM, Huang CC, Hsu MC. Astragalus membranaceus improves exercise performance and ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue in trained mice. Molecules. 2014 Mar 3;19(3):2793-807. doi: 10.3390/molecules19032793. PMID 24595275
  11. Go↑ Zhang P, Liu X, Liu H, Wang W, Liu X, Li X, Wu X. Astragalus polysaccharides inhibit avian infectious bronchitis virus infection by regulating viral replication. Microb Pathog. 2018 Jan;114:124-128. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2017.11.026. PMID 29170045
  12. Go↑ Zhang Q, Gao WY, Man SL. Chemical composition and pharmacological activities of astragali radix. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2012 Nov;37(21):3203-7. PMID 23397713
  13. Go↑ Ren S, Zhang H, Mu Y, Sun M, Liu P. Pharmacological effects of Astragaloside IV: a literature review. J Tradit Chin Med. 2013 Jun;33(3):413-6. PMID 24024343
  14. Go↑ Li L, Hou X, Xu R, Liu C, Tu M. Research review on the pharmacological effects of astragaloside IV. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Feb;31(1):17-36. doi: 10.1111/fcp.12232. PMID 27567103
  15. Go↑ Shao BM, Xu W, Dai H, Tu P, Li Z, Gao XM. A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Aug 6;320(4):1103-11. PMID 15249203
  16. Go↑ Denzler KL, Waters R, Jacobs BL, Rochon Y, Langland JO. Regulation of inflammatory gene expression in PBMCs by immunostimulatory botanicals. PLoS One. 2010 Sep 3;5(9):e12561. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012561. PMID 20838436
  17. Go↑ Yung LY, Lam WS, Ho MK, Hu Y, Ip FC, Pang H, Chin AC, Harley CB, Ip NY, Wong YH. Astragaloside IV and cycloastragenol stimulate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase in multiple cell types. Planta Med. 2012 Jan;78(2):115-21. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1280346. PMID 22083896
  18. Go↑ Kun Yeong Lee, Young Jin Jeon. Macrophage activation by polysaccharide isolated from Astragalus membranaceus. International Immunopharmacology, Volume 5, Issues 7-8, July 2005, Pages 1225-1233. PMID 15914327
  19. Go↑ Bao-Mei Shao, Wen Xu, Hui Dai, Pengfei Tu, Zhongjun Li, Xiao-Ming Gao. A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 320, Issue 4, 6 August 2004, Pages 1103-1111 PMID 15249203
  20. Go↑ Zhao XZ. Effects of Astragalus membranaceus and Tripterygium hypoglancum on natural killer cell activity of peripheral blood mononuclear in systemic lupus erythematosus. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1992 Nov;12(11):669-71, 645. PMID 1301849
  21. Go↑ Chu DT, Wong WL, Mavligit GM. Immunotherapy with Chinese medicinal herbs. I. Immune restoration of local xenogeneic graft-versus-host reaction in cancer patients by fractionated Astragalus membranaceus in vitro. J Clin Lab Immunol. 1988 Mar;25(3):119-23. PMID 3260960
  22. Go↑ Chu DT, Lepe-Zuniga J, Wong WL, LaPushin R, Mavligit GM. Fractionated extract of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb, potentiates LAK cell cytotoxicity generated by a low dose of recombinant interleukin-2. J Clin Lab Immunol. 1988 Aug;26(4):183-7. PMID 3264344
  23. Go↑ Chu DT, Wong WL, Mavligit GM. Immunotherapy with Chinese medicinal herbs. II. Reversal of cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression by administration of fractionated Astragalus membranaceus in vivo. J Clin Lab Immunol. 1988 Mar;25(3):125-9. PMID 3260961
  24. Go↑ Jiao Y, Wen J, Yu X. Influence of flavonoid of Astragalus membranaceus's stem and leaves on the function of cell mediated immunity in mice. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1999 Jun;19(6):356-8. PMID 11783202
  25. Go↑ Tan Benny K.H., Vanitha J. Immunomodulatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Some Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Review. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2004, 11, 1423-1430. Texte intégral : [1]
  26. Go↑ Mao SP, Cheng KL, Zhou YF. Modulatory effect of Astragalus membranaceus on Th1/Th2 cytokine in patients with herpes simplex keratitis. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004 Feb;24(2):121-3. PMID 15015443
  27. Go↑ Zhou KS, Mancini C, Doria G. Enhancement of the immune response in mice by Astragalus membranaceus extracts. Immunopharmacology, 1990, 20:225–233
  28. Go↑ Chang HM, But PPH, eds. Pharmacology and applications of Chinese materia medica, Vol. 2. Singapore, World Scientific Publishing, 1987
  29. Go↑ Sun, Y., Wang, S., Jin, H., & Cheng, X. (2014). Effects and Potential Mechanisms on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Astragalus polysaccharides. 14th National Symposium on Traditional Chinese Medicine.
  30. Go↑ Yang, L., Han, X., Xing, F., Wu, H., Shi, H., Huang, F., ... & Wu, X. (2021). Total flavonoids of astragalus attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by suppressing the activation and inflammatory responses of microglia via JNK/AKT/NFκB signaling pathway. Phytomedicine, 80, 153385.
  31. Go↑ Sun, Y., Jing, Y., Huang, M., Ma, J., Peng, X., Wang, J., ... & Cheng, X. (2019). The PD-1/PD-Ls pathway is up-regulated during the suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis treated by Astragalus polysaccharides. Journal of neuroimmunology, 332, 78-90.
  32. Go↑ Ye N, Cruz J, Peng X, Ma J, Zhang A, Cheng X. Remyelination is enhanced by Astragalus polysaccharides through inducing the differentiation of oligodendrocytes from neural stem cells in cuprizone model of demyelination. Brain Res. 2021 Jul 15;1763:147459. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147459. PMID 33794147.
  33. Go↑ Zhao P, Su G, Xiao X, Hao E, Zhu X, Ren J. Chinese medicinal herb Radix Astragali suppresses cardiac contractile dysfunction and inflammation in a rat model of autoimmune myocarditis. Toxicol Lett. 2008 Nov 10;182(1-3):29-35. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.08.002. PMID 18782607.
  34. Go↑ Jiang JB, Qiu JD, Yang LH, He JP, Smith GW, Li HQ. Therapeutic effects of astragalus polysaccharides on inflammation and synovial apoptosis in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Int J Rheum Dis. 2010 Oct;13(4):396-405. doi: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2010.01555.x. PMID 21199477.
  35. Go↑ Cho WC, Leung KN. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of Astragalus membranaceus. Cancer Lett. 2007 Jul 8;252(1):43-54. PMID 17223259
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  45. Go↑ Wang, Y., Xie, Q., Liang, C. L., Zeng, Q., & Dai, Z. (2017). Chinese medicine Ginseng and Astragalus granules ameliorate autoimmune diabetes by upregulating both CD4+ FoxP3+ and CD8+ CD122+ PD1+ regulatory T cells. Oncotarget, 8(36), 60201.
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  64. Go↑ Zhang BQ, Hu SJ, Qiu LH, Zhu JH, Xie XJ, Sun J, Zhu ZH, Xia Q, Bian K. Effects of Astragalus membranaceus and its main components on the acute phase endothelial dysfunction induced by homocysteine. Vascular Pharmacology, Volume 46, Issue 4, April 2007, Pages 278-285. PMID 17196887
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CAUTION

Store in a cool, dry place, away from light. Keep tightly closed, away from the reach of Children and pets.

Do not exceed the daily dose.

 

This product is not intended to prevent or cure any form of illness or disease.
 

If you are pregnant or nursing ; If you have a medical condition or are in the course of medical treatment ; If you are programmed for theater/operation in the near future, please consult your healthcare practitioner before using this product.

 

This product cannot replace a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle.

 

This product has not been evaluated by the SAHPRA for its quality, safety or intended use.

 

For More Information please check our General Safety Herbal products Page