Calamus Root Sweet Flag - 60 Capsules - Herbal Collection
Calamus Root - 60 Capsules - Herbal Collection
Acorus calamus radix
Calamus root, also known as Acorus calamus, sweet flag, or vacha, is a perennial wetland plant native to Asia, Europe, and North America.
It has been used in traditional medicine systems, such as Ayurveda, Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Native American medicine, for centuries to treat a variety of ailments.
Here are some of the benefits, properties, and traditional uses of calamus root:
- Digestive health: Calamus root has carminative properties, meaning it can help relieve gas and bloating. It is also believed to stimulate appetite and aid in digestion by promoting the secretion of digestive enzymes and stomach acids.
- Cognitive function: In Ayurveda, calamus root is known for its ability to improve memory, concentration, and overall cognitive function. It has been used as a natural remedy for Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and other age-related cognitive declines.
- Respiratory health: Calamus root has expectorant properties and has been used traditionally to treat respiratory issues such as bronchitis, asthma, and coughs. It may help to clear mucus from the lungs and soothe irritated airways.
- Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties: Calamus root has been used to treat inflammation and pain due to its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. It may be helpful for conditions like arthritis, muscle pain, and joint pain.
- Antimicrobial properties: Calamus root has been found to have antimicrobial properties, making it useful for treating bacterial and fungal infections. It has been used traditionally to treat skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis, as well as mouth and throat infections.
- Anxiety and stress relief: Calamus root has been used in traditional medicine systems to help reduce anxiety, stress, and nervousness. It is believed to have mild sedative effects that promote relaxation and help with sleep.
- Detoxification: Calamus root is considered a natural detoxifier and has been used to cleanse the liver, kidneys, and blood. It may help remove toxins and waste from the body, supporting overall health and well-being.
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International Latin denomination
Description and habitat
- Aquatic herb of Asian origin similar to the rush, 50 to 200 cm in height, it spreads by long, thick, horizontal rhizomes, with many adventitious roots, whitish inside and very aromatic
- Large, elongated, flattened, sword-shaped leaves
- Likely of Indian or Asian descent
- Wet floors and ditches
- Acorus calamus var. americanus (Raf.) Wulff (America), var. calamus L. (Europe), var. angustata Bess. (India).
History and tradition
- Considered an aphrodisiac in Egypt and India
- For Ayurvedic medicine it regenerates the brain, the roots and rhizomes are used with the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of mental disorders 
- Its rhizome recalls the smell of angelica , hence its name of belle-angélique in Quebec, where it forms huge colonies in marshes and on the edges of Quebec's waterways.
- Under the name schoenante , it would have been one of the constituents of the theriac of the western maritime pharmacopoeia in the 18th century
- Rhizome, essential oil
Dosage forms available
- Maximum tolerated limit of beta-asarone : 0.1 mg/kg
Main components of the plant
- Essential oil (2 to 9%), monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes , phenylpropane derivatives ( beta-asarone ) which makes it possible to differentiate three different chemotypes according to the content of beta-asarone
- Bitter principle: acorone
Main components of buds or young shoots
Main components of essential oil
- Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes : camphene , paracymene , beta-gurjunene , alpha-selinene , beta-elemene , linalool , delta-cadinene , alpha-terpineol , alpha-cadinol , acorenone , calamendiol , isoshyobunone , etc.
- Phenylpropane derivatives 10% ( beta-asarone )
- Varied and multiple pharmacological properties  : sedative, anticonvulsant, antispasmodic, hypolipidemic, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, cryoprotective, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic (inhibits the activity of alpha-glucosidase)  , anti-asthmatic 
- General stimulant, aperitif
- Gastro-protective, anti-ulcer, decreases acid production in the stomach 
- Hypolipidemic  (alcoholic extracts for saponosides )
- Anxiolytic 
- Beta -asarone is sedative of the central nervous system
- Neurotropic  ,  and neuroprotective  , modulator of the dopaminergic system  , neuroprotective properties and potentialities in Parkinson's disease  ( beta-asarone )
- A related species, Acorus gramineus Solander (Acoraceae) is used in Asia in neurodegenerative diseases and Parkinson's disease  , it is present in a preparation of Korean traditional medicine, Yeoldahanso-tang, which contains 10 plants: Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, Angelica tenuissima Nakai, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq), Angelica dahurica , Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom, Raphanus sativus L., Polygala tenuifolia (Willd.), Acorus gramineus Soland. Dimocarpus longanLour, in the following proportions 6:4:2:1:2:2:2:4:6:6 and has neuroprotective properties in Parkinson's disease 
- Beta -asarone decreases cognitive deterioration, potential in Alzheimer's disease 
- Isolated asarone is carcinogenic (only prescribe the American variety of sweet flag), but no reports of cancer in India where sweet flag is widely consumed
- Activity on neuropathic pain by antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective action and by calcium inhibitor effects 
- Antibacterial, antifungal
- Immunomodulating, immunosuppressive  , 
- Sprouting inhibitor 
Properties of essential oil
- The essential oil is spasmolytic, powerful intestinal antispasmodic 
- Pleasant-smelling essential oil has a yield varying from 0.5 to 2% for the American and European varieties, and up to 6 to 7% for the Indian variety
- Maximum tolerated limit of beta-asarone in food and beverages is 0.1 mg/kg, and 1 mg/kg in alcoholic beverages
Indications of the whole plant (phytotherapy)
- Aerophagia, colic, poor digestion
- Gastritis, functional colopathy
- Bloating, digestive spasms
- Neuropathic pain
- Parkinson's (?)
Indications of the bud (gemmotherapy)
Specific indications of essential oil (aromatherapy)
Known or suspected mode of action
- French Pharmacopoeia list A (rhizome)
Possible side effects and precautions for use
- Isolated asarone is carcinogenic (only prescribe the American variety of sweet flag)
- Go↑ Dandiya PC, Menon MK. Effects of asarone and β-asarone on conditioned responses, fighting behavior and convulsions. Br J Pharmacol Chemother. 1963 June; 20(3): 436–442. PMID 14024874
- Go↑ Chopra Mm, Vashist Vn, Handa Kl. Chromatographic estimation of asarones in indian Acorus calamus linn. Oil (tetraploid variety). J Chromatogr. 1965 Jan;17:195-6. PMID 14285548
- Go↑ Rajput SB, Tonge MB, Karuppayil SM. An overview on traditional uses and pharmacological profile of Acorus calamus Linn. (Sweet flag) and other Acorus species. Phytomedicine. 2014 Feb 15;21(3):268-76. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.09.020. PMID 24200497
- Go↑ Mn, Mythili & Selvaraj, C. Immanuel & Pe, Rajasekharan. (2013). The Sweetness and Bitterness of Sweet Flag [Acorus calamus L.] – A Review. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 4. 598-610.
- Go↑ Balakumbahan, R., Rajamani, K., & Kumanan, K. (2010). Acorus calamus: An overview. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(25), 2740-2745.
- Go↑ Rafatullah S., Tariq M., Mossa JS, Al-Yahya MA, Al-Said MS, Ageel AM Anti-secretagogue, anti-ulcer and cytoprotective properties of Acorus calamus in rats. Fitoterapia, Volume LXV, No. 1, 1994
- Go↑ Reshma S. Parab, Sushma A. Mengi. Hypolipidemic activity of Acorus calamus L. in rats. Fitoterapia, Volume 73, Issue 6, October 2002, Pages 451-455
- Go↑ Bhattacharyya D, Sur TK, Lyle N, Jana U, Debnath PK. A clinical study on the management of generalized anxiety disorder with Vaca (Acorus calamus). Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge Vol. 10 (4), October 2011, p. 668-671 Full text
- Go↑ Vohora SB, Shah SA, Dandiya PC. Central nervous system studies on an ethanol extract of Acorus calamus rhizomes. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990 Feb;28(1):53-62. PMID 2314110
- Go↑ Jina Pattanaik, Yogesh Kumar, Ravi Shankar Khatri. Acorus calamus Linn.: A herbal tonic for central nervous system. Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research 2013; 2 (5): 950-954 full text
- Go↑ Pradeep K. Shukla, Vinay K. Khanna, MM Ali, RR Maurya, SS Handa, RC Srimal. Protective effect of Acorus calamus against acrylamide induced neurotoxicity. Phytotherapy Research, Volume 16, Issue 3, pages 256–260, May 2002
- Go↑ Vengadesh Prabu K, George T, Vinoth Kumar R, Nancy J, Kalaivani M, Vijayapandi P. Neuromodulatory effect of Acrous calamus leaves extract on dopaminergic system in mice. International Journal of PharmTech Research CODEN (USA): IJPRIF ISSN: 0974-4304 Vol.1, No.4, pp 1255-1259, Oct-Dec 2009 full text
- Go↑ Zhang QS, Wang ZH, Zhang JL, Duan YL, Li GF, Zheng DL. Beta-asarone protects against MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease via regulating long non-coding RNA MALAT1 and inhibiting α-synuclein protein expression. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 Oct;83:153-159. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.06.017. PMID 27470562
- Go↑ Jiang J, Kim JJ, Kim DY, Kim MK, Oh NH, Koppula S, Park PJ, Choi DK, Shin YK, Kim IH, Kang TB, Lee KH. Acorus gramineus inhibits microglia mediated neuroinflammation and prevents neurotoxicity in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Dec 18;144(3):506-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.09.026. PMID 23085397
- Go↑ Bae N, Ahn T, Chung S, Oh MS, Ko H, Oh H, Park G, Yang HO. The neuroprotective effect of modified Yeoldahanso-tang via autophagy enhancement in models of Parkinson's disease. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Mar 24;134(2):313-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.12.016. PMID 21172413
- Go↑ Geng Y, Li C, Liu J, Xing G, Zhou L, Dong M, Li X, Niu Y. Beta-asarone improves cognitive function by suppressing neuronal apoptosis in beta-amyloid hippocampus injection rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33(5):836-43. PMID 20460763
- Go↑ Muthuraman A, Singh N. Attenuating effect of Acorus calamus extract in chronic constriction injury induced neuropathic pain in rats: an evidence of anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and calcium inhibitory effects. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 11:24 
- Go↑ Mehrotra S, Mishra KP, Maurya R, Srimal RC, Yadav VS, Pandey R, Singh VK. Anticellular and immunosuppressive properties of ethanolic extract of Acorus calamus rhizome. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Jan;3(1):53-61. PMID 12538034
- Go↑ Ravichandiran Vellayutham, Vishal S Patil. In vitro evaluation for immunomodulatory of Acorus calamus on human neutrophils. International research journal of pharmacy 2015 full text
- Go↑ Kazue Nawamaki, Masanori Kuroyanagi. Sesquiterpenoids from Acorus calamus as germination inhibitors. Phytochemistry, Volume 43, Issue 6, December 1996, Pages 1175-1182
- Go↑ Gilani AU, Shah AJ, Ahmad M, Shaheen F. Antispasmodic effect of Acorus calamus Linn. is mediated through calcium channel blockade. Phytother Res. 2006 Dec;20(12):1080-4. PMID 17009206
- Timothy J. Motley. The ethnobotany of sweet flag, acorus Calamus (Araceae). Economic Botany, Volume 48, Number 4, 397-412
Store in a cool, dry place, away from light. Keep tightly closed, away from the reach of Children and pets.
Do not exceed the daily dose.
This product is not intended to prevent or cure any form of illness or disease.
If you are pregnant or nursing ; If you have a medical condition or are in the course of medical treatment ; If you are programmed for theater/operation in the near future, please consult your healthcare practitioner before using this product.
This product cannot replace a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle.
This product has not been evaluated by the SAHPRA for its quality, safety or intended use.
It's essential to note that scientific research on calamus root is limited, and some of its traditional uses may not be supported by modern evidence.
Additionally, calamus root contains beta-asarone, a compound that has been linked to potential carcinogenic effects in animal studies.
It's crucial to consult with a healthcare professional before using calamus root, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, or have a pre-existing medical condition.