Echinacea Herb Cut - 50 g - Herbal Collection
Echinacea Herb Cut - 50 g - Herbal Collection
Echinacea, also known as the purple coneflower, is a group of flowering plants in the daisy family, native to North America. The most commonly used species for medicinal purposes are Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, and Echinacea pallida.
Echinacea has been traditionally used by Native Americans for centuries, and its therapeutic benefits have been well documented in Western herbal medicine.
- Immune support: Echinacea is perhaps best known for its immune-boosting properties. Traditionally, it has been used to prevent and treat common colds, flu, and other infections.
- Wound healing: Native Americans used Echinacea topically to treat various skin conditions, including wounds, burns, insect bites, and skin infections.
- Anti-inflammatory: Echinacea has been used to relieve inflammation and pain associated with conditions like arthritis, rheumatism, and other musculoskeletal disorders.
- Respiratory support: Echinacea has been used to treat respiratory issues such as bronchitis, sinusitis, and sore throat.
- Immunostimulant: Echinacea is believed to stimulate the immune system by increasing the production of white blood cells and enhancing their activity.
- Antiviral and antibacterial: Echinacea contains compounds that may help inhibit the growth of viruses and bacteria, providing protection against various infections.
- Antioxidant: Echinacea is rich in antioxidants that help neutralize free radicals and protect the body against oxidative damage.
- Anti-inflammatory: Echinacea contains compounds that may help reduce inflammation, providing relief from associated pain and discomfort.
- Cold and flu prevention: Research suggests that Echinacea may help prevent and shorten the duration of colds and flu by boosting the immune system.
- Skin health: Echinacea's anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties may help promote wound healing, reduce skin irritation, and treat various skin conditions.
- Respiratory support: Echinacea may help alleviate symptoms of respiratory issues like sinusitis, bronchitis, and sore throat.
- General well-being: As a natural immune enhancer, Echinacea may help improve overall health and well-being, especially during times of increased stress or exposure to pathogens.
It's important to note that more research is needed to confirm some of these benefits, and individual results may vary. Always consult with a healthcare professional before using Echinacea or any herbal supplement, especially if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, have allergies, or are taking any medications.
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- Three species are considered medicinal by the French Pharmacopoeia :
International Latin denomination
- Echinacea angustifolia DC
- Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench. (= Rudbeckia purpurea L.)
- Echinacea pallida Nutt.
Description and habitat
- North American plant, dry grasslands and hills, dry sandbanks
- The root is fusiform, the leaves entire and lanceolate. The large terminal flower heads are made up of yellow or purple tubular flowers gathered in a ball, and drooping ligulate flowers, usually pink making it look like a daisy (it is a Compositae = Asteraceae )
History and tradition
- The American Indians (South Dakota) used this plant to heal infected wounds, and in local applications in snakebites. To use it, they ground the fresh plant and applied it topically or chewed the root
- Alexitere plant: recommended against snake bites
- The name comes from the Greek echinos hedgehog to recall the appearance of the flower head when fruiting .
- It was the most used plant in the United States in the 19th century.
- Rudbeckia subtomentosa , botanically close, contains like Inula helenium eudesmanolides ( alloalantolactone and 3-oxo-alloalantolactone ) active on Mycobacterium tuberculosis
- Root (or whole plant with root)
Dosage forms available
- Echinacea angustifolia tincture whole plant
- Echinacea purpurea root EPS
- Fluid extract
- Fluid extract 1 gram or 50 drops once a day
- Mother tincture 50 drops twice a day
- EPS 5ml per day
- In prevention, always in discontinuous cures, 10 to 15 days per month
- In acute:
- Echinacea purpurea juice 2 to 3 ml or 1 to 2 ml of extract, 1 to 4 times a day, either mixed with water or taken sublingually
- Dry extract (concentration ratio 6.5:1) of Echinacea purpurea 3 times a day 150 to 300 mg
- Alcoholic tincture (1:5, 45% ethanol), 1 to 5 ml 3 times a day
Main components of the plant
- Alkylamides or alkamides (unsaturated aliphatic compounds: 2%, about fifteen compounds have been identified) in the lipophilic fraction, including echinacein ; they are polyins or isobutylamides of polyenynic and polyene acids (= polyacetylenes)
- Phenolic compounds derived from caffeic acid like echinacoside (0.3 – 1.3%), cynarin or cichoric acid , specific for either species
- Complex polysaccharides of M > 10,000 D, including arabinogalactan , arabinorhamnogalactan , fucogalactoxyloglucan , glucuronoarabinoxylan
- Indolizidine alkaloids
- Long chain fatty acids, alkanes
- Essential oil with humulene (= alpha-caryophyllene ) and echinolone
Main components of buds or young shoots
Main components of essential oil
- The juxtaposition of three large groups of substances: alkylamides , polysaccharides , caffeic acid derivatives seems important for efficacy 
- The plant acts on several factors of immunity:
- Prevents microbial germs from attacking connective tissue and limits their progression
- Stimulates the activity of macrophages ( arabinogalactan )  and induces their cytotoxicity  , modulates the production of cytokines by macrophages  , activates NF-kappaB  , increases the phagocytosis of granulocytes and macrophages ( alcoholic extracts of the root), inhibits the production of PGE2 by macrophages 
- Increases the number of white blood cells and in particular lymphocytes, increases the proliferation of spleen cells, the production of Ig M, induces the formation of cytokines (TNF alpha, interleukin 1 & 6) and that of interferons alpha and beta
- Alkylamides modulate the expression of NF-kappa B by some human T cells (Jurkat T cells)  , inhibit the ability of activated Jurkat T cells to produce the interleukin IL-2, independent of direct and cytotoxic effects  , but their specific effects of each of them are poorly understood and require standardization 
- Echinacein would be adrenal-mimetic, like Ginseng extract , and it increases resistance to effort
- Among the polysaccharides , glucan stimulates phagocytosis, galactan stimulates the production of cytokines by macrophages: TNF-alpha, interferon beta-2, and interleukin-1
- Improves immunity of immunodeficient mice 
- Stimulation in vivo in rats of a non-specific immune response (association of cichoric acid , polysaccharides , alkylamides ) 
- Direct antibacterial effect on Streptococcus pyogenes , Hemophilus influenzae , Legionella pneumophila , methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Mycobacterium smegmatis , and decreased induced inflammatory responses 
- Antiviral  ,  , overall virucidal activity against membrane viruses (multi-functional action)  , inhibition of virus-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL -8 (CXCL8)
- Anti-inflammatory 
- Alkylamides are ligands for cannabinoid type 2 receptors, which could explain immune modulating effects through TNF-alpha and interest in inflammatory diseases  ,  , 
- Alkylamides are analgesic [ 25]
- Healing action, participates in the restoration of connective tissue by opposing the hydrolysis of hyaluronic acid, the fundamental molecule of connective tissue 
Properties of essential oil
Indications of the whole plant (phytotherapy)
- Prophylaxis and therapy of influenza infections and septic infections, decreases cold symptoms  , the Cochrane literature review dating from 2014 shows a weak effect in the treatment of colds, but a constant efficacy in the prevention of recurrences  , furthermore with significant differences due to the choice of plant species and organs, and different galenic forms
- Immune stimulation, immuno-stimulant: acts both in prevention (bacterial infections, flu, herpes, cystitis, candidiasis, etc.) and curative where it potentiates other therapies 
- Local treatment of delayed healing and dermatitis
- Preferably fresh plant juice due to the presence of alcohol-insoluble polysaccharides
- Homeopathic indications:
- Septicemia or suppuration with impaired general condition, torpor, deep pain, dehydration, and anthrax, furunculosis, adenitis, lymphangitis, phlegmons, gangrene
Indications of the bud (gemmotherapy)
Specific indications of essential oil (aromatherapy)
Known or suspected mode of action
- Echinacein would be adrenal-mimetic
- Complex immunomodulatory activities, stimulation of phagocytic activity of macrophages and suppression of pro-inflammatory responses of epithelial cells to viruses and bacteria, which lead to alterations in the secretion of various cytokines and chemokines 
- The immuno-stimulating activity is due in particular to the polysaccharides , but the lipophilic fraction ( alkylamides ) is also active, in particular on macrophages.
- Alkylamides inhibit the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2) by macrophages  ,  ) , they participate in the immunostimulant effect  and are anti-inflammatory 
- Alcoholic root extracts increase granulocyte phagocytosis
- Polyacetylenic derivatives are chemotaxonomic characters of the family Asteraceae
- French Pharmacopoeia list A:
- Activity recognized by the German Commission E ( Echinacea purpurea )
Possible side effects and precautions for use
- Contraindications: autoimmune diseases, and progressive diseases such as tuberculosis, leucosis, collagenosis, MS, AIDS
- Avoid during pregnancy 
- Allergic risks to Asteraceae , caution in atopics  , reported hypereosinophilia 
- Leukopenia reported in prolonged use 
- A few rare cases of hepatitis reported  , including one with positive anti-smooth muscle antibodies 
- Pharmacokinetic interactions:
- Possible interaction with CYP450 enzymes  (isoenzyme inhibition, increased drug effect, but no in vivo clinical evidence )
- No interaction noted with cytochrome CYP2D6 
- Inhibition of cytochrome P450 isoforms 3A4, 1A2, 2C19, 2D9 ( alkylamides ) 
- Controversial contraindications by one author  ,  , another author mentions that contraindications in cases of autoimmune diseases and immunosuppression are questionable, use during pregnancy is accepted, qu there is no significant inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in vivo, that the contradictory results concern the use of liver microsomes, and that, ultimately , echinacea preparations are well tolerated in the management of children and adults 
- Pharmacodynamic interactions, avoid the following combinations:
- Steroids (additive immunomodulatory properties)
- Immunosuppressants (theoretical impairment of immunosuppressive effect)
- In AIDS, no problems were noted after co-administration of Echinacea purpurea with darunavir-ritonavir 
- No problems were noted in the combination of Echinacea purpurea with docetaxel 
- A case of recurrent erythema nodosum has been reported in a patient who consumed loratadine and echinacea together .
- Go↑ Letchamo, W., J. Livesey, TJ Arnason, C. Bergeron, and VS Krutilina. 1999. Cichoric acid and isobutylamide content in Echinacea purpurea as influenced by flower developmental stages. p. 494–498. In: J. Janick (ed.), Perspectives on new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
- Go↑ Manayi, A., Vazirian, M., & Saeidnia, S. (2015). Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 9(17), 63–72. http://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.156353
- Go↑ Tobler M, Krienbühl H, Egger M, et al. Characteristics of whole fresh plant extracts. Phytotherapy. Switzerland. Zschr. Ganzheits Medizin. 1994
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- ↑Go to :11.0 and 11.1 Toselli F, Matthias A, Gillam EM. Echinacea metabolism and drug interactions: the case for standardization of a complementary medicine. Life Sci. 2009 Jul 17;85(3-4):97-106. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2009.04.023. PMID 19427870
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- Natural health products, to better advise patients. Reference document of the College of Physicians and the Order of Pharmacists of Quebec. 2004
Store in a cool, dry place, away from light. Keep tightly closed, away from the reach of Children and pets.
Do not exceed the daily dose.
This product is not intended to prevent or cure any form of illness or disease.
If you are pregnant or nursing ; If you have a medical condition or are in the course of medical treatment ; If you are programmed for theater/operation in the near future, please consult your healthcare practitioner before using this product.
This product cannot replace a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle.
This product has not been evaluated by the SAHPRA for its quality, safety or intended use.